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Title: Biochemical, Antimicrobial and Tissue Culture Studies of Mangrove Trees of Indus Delta
Authors: Mangrio, Abdul Majeed
Keywords: Biological & Medical Sciences
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: University of Sindh, Jamshoro.
Abstract: Mangroves are different kinds of trees and shrubs grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropical and subtropical regions spanning to 118 countries and territories. Mangrove forests are among the most productive and biologically important ecosystems of the world as they provide important and unique ecosystem goods and services to human society, coastal and marine systems. The forests help to stabilize shorelines and reduce the devastating impact of natural disasters such as tsunamis. The mangroves also provide breeding and nursing grounds for marine and pelagic species, food, medicine, fuel and building materials for local communities. In Pakistan, Indus delta constitute about 0.6 million hectares with a coastline of 250 km, about 129,000 hectares comprise mangrove forests, mostly located in various pockets created by major and minor creeks. Presently four mangroves species Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata are growing in this area. Among these, A. marina occupies about 95-97% of mangrove trees of Indus delta. Mangroves are biochemically unique, producing a wide array of natural products which are biologically active antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal compounds. Mangrove plant extracts have been used for centuries for treating several health disorders like reducing blood pressures, treatment of leprosy and epilepsy. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and tissue culture studies have been conducted on different mangrove species in the world. A very little work has been reported on mangroves of Indus Delta but no any detailed report is published yet about tissue culture, antioxidants, phenolic acid and antimicrobial studies. The present study was proposed with defined objectives related to micropropagation, biochemical, phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidants and antimicrobial studies of local mangrove species growing in Indus Delta. Plant samples of four mangrove species were collected from Kati Bander and Shah Bander, district Thatta. Nodal stem sections were sterilized with bleach and inoculated on MS media containing various concentrations and combinations of ascorbic acid, activated charcoal, BAP, Kin and IAA. A. marina showed the highest shoot formation response (86%) with 2.40.1 shoots per nodal explant on MS medium supplemented with 3.0% sucrose, 100mg/L ascorbic acid, 6.0 g/L V activated charcoal, 0.5mg/L BAP, 1.0mg/L Kin and 0.25mg/L IAA while 82% microshoots were rooted with 2.160.1 average roots per microshoot, 27.55mm average root length in 23 days on MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/L IBA. Micropropagated plantlets were successfully established in field at Jamshoro. Biochemical results revealed that protein and carbohydrate contents were higher in different parts in region II as compared to region I. The highest amounts of proteins (84.341.9mg/ml) in A. corniculatum leaf total sugars (118.654.5mg/ml) and reducing sugars (62.861.9mg/ml) were accumulated in leaves of A. marina of region II. Qualitative analysis confirmed that alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins and sterols are present in various parts of all mangrove species. Quantitative analysis showed that salt stressed mangrove plants of region I contained the increased amounts of phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidants as the highest amount of total phenolic acids (48.351.2 mg/ml), flavonoids (29.491.4 mg/ml) and total antioxidants (16.190.4 mg/ml) were accumulated from leaves of A. corniculatum of region I. Total chlorophyll and carotenoids in leaves of mangroves were affected with higher and lower temperatures in Jamshoro (region II). The highest amount of total chlorophyll contents (3.96  0.12 mg/g FW) was detected in A. marina of region II during the month of October. Chlorophyll a/b ratio was also decreased during October while increased during January and July. Carotenoids were significantly reduced during January while increased during October. The ethanol extracts of various parts of mangroves from both regions showed antibacterial response against S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. All extracts of T1 (10% extracts) preparations showed a wide range of zones of inhibitions (3.00.65 to 16.50.2 mm) against tested bacterial species. In conclusion, four mangrove species were successfully micropropagated and established in the field in Jamshoro. Protein and carbohydrate contents were accumulated higher in mangroves of region I while phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidants were accumulated in higher amount in mangroves of Indus delta. Chlorophyll contents in leaves were affected due to low and higher temperatures. All mangrove species from both regions showed antibacterial response against S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae.
Gov't Doc #: 24908
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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