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dc.contributor.authorAbbas, Qamar-
dc.description.abstractThe present research conducted in the four selected valleys of CKNP (Haramosh, Bagrote, Hoper and Shiger) to record ethnobotany, land cover classification, phytochemical investigation and therapeutic potentials of selected medicinal plants. Field visits were conducted during the years 2012-15 to the selected valleys to record floral diversity in four different ecological zones, (desert, temperate, subalpine and alpine). A total number of 369 plant species were recorded belonging to 185 genera and 62 families. Out of these, maximum number of species belong to Angiosperms (360) followed by Gymnosperms (8) and Pteridophytes (3). Based on species distribution in different ecological zones, 259 species (39%) were recoded from the subalpine zone, 213 species (33%) from the alpine zone, 127 species (19%) from the temperate zone and only 59 species (9%) were reported from the desert zones. The floristic inventory on the basis of habit and life forms revealed that, hemicryptophytes were represented by 249 species (68%), therophytes 61(17%), Phanaerophytes 46(12%), chamaephytes 8(2%) and geophytes were only 5 species (1%). In terms of conservation status, 6 species were endemic, 313 species were common (84%), 25 species were infrequent (7%), 21 species were very common (6%), 7 species were rare (2%) and only 6 species were very rare (1%). Among the 369 collected specimens, 226 plant species were medicinally important and used for the treatment of 14 major diseases of different categories. The Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) presented the highest value for eye diseases (0.9), followed by tonics (0.87), anticancer (0.85), ear, nose and throat (0.85), urogenital diseases (0.85), cardiac diseases (0.84), respiratory diseases (0.84), and gastro intestinal diseases (0.83). Land Covere Classification (LCC) was performed by using the Remote Sensing techniques. The LCC divided Hoper valley into eight major categories, Bagrote and Haramosh valley into eleven, and Sigher valley into eight different categorize. Results pertaining to phytochemical potentials of selected medicinal plants, Compound 1 was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of P. wallichiana through repeated column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. This compound was identified as anemonin 1 with the iv help of spectroscopic techniques and its molecular formula was comprehended as C10H8O4 corresponding to molecular mass of 192 amu. This compound is reported first time from Pulsatilla wallichiana. Five medicinally important plant species were subjected to bioassay screening to reveal their therapeutic potentials based on traditional knowledge. The ethyl acetate fraction of P. wallichiana exhibited encouraging activity against DPPH radicals with IC50 value of 31μg/mL, comparable with the standard antioxidant compound (gallic acid IC50 of 23μg/mL). Methanolic fractions of P. wallichiana, Saussurea simpsoniana and Salvia nubicola showed the highest antiglycation activity with 45%, 41%, and 40% respectively. The dichloromethane fractions of S. simpsoniana and S. nubicola exhibited maximum immunomodulatory activity (IC50 of 51.2 and 54.28 μg/mL, respectively). Cytotoxic activity was also investigated against cancer cell lines (HeLa) which revealed that the methanolic extracts of both S. nubicola and Delphinium brunonianum were highly significant anticancer activities (IC50 values >100). Similarly, the DCM extract of S. simpsoniana and S. nubicola, P. wallichiana and Gentianodis tianschanica showed moderate cytotoxic effect towards HeLa cells lines with IC50 values of 4.80±0.40, 18.45±0.53, 12.00±0.223, 3.33±0.30 respectively. Antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains revealed minimum a inhibition by S. nubicola against Shigella flexenari (9.63%), P. wallichiana against Pseudomonos areuginosa (4.39%), S. simpsoniana against Staphylococcus aureus (16.99%) and Salmonella typhhi (30.21%), D. brunonianum against Shigella flexenara (12.80%) and Escherichia coli (3.89%). The antifungal study revealed that methanolic extract of G. tianschanica showed activity against Fusarium lini (30%), S. nubicola depicted significant activity against Trichphyton rubrum (80%) and Microsporum canis (60%). The aqueous extract of P. wallichiana showed significant activity against Trichphyton rubrum (35%) and Microsporum canis (70%), while methanolic extract of P. wallichiana exhibited significant activity against T. rubrum (60%). Similarly, the methanolic extract of S. simpsoniana showed significant activity against T. rubrum (60%) and Fusarium lini (30%), while D. brunonianum showed significant activity against T. rubrum (60%). The protein profiling through SDS-PAGE showed varied protein bands on the basis of their diverse molecular weight (kD). Most of the proteins investigated in each specie showed a low molecular weight ranging between 16kD to 72kD, while few protein bands were examined in the higher molecular weight 72kD. 16 types of protein bands were further examined through LC/MS/MS analysis, and their score displays the degree of significance of the protein identified, correlate with the taxonomy of viridiplantae. The current findings conclude that v the folk wisdom about medicinal plants will guide the advance research in the field of natural compound isolation from the diverse flora and its sustainable utilization in therapeutics. This data will further provide a base line information for the conservation of nature.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherKarakoram International University, Gilgit, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan.en_US
dc.subjectPlant Sciencesen_US
dc.titleEthnobotany, Phytochemical Investigation and Bioassay Screening of Some Important Medicinal Plants From Selected Valleys of Central Karakoram National park (CKNP), Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistanen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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