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Title: The Indus Waters Treaty: Pakistan's Quest for Water Security
Authors: Imran, Muhammad
Keywords: Social Sciences
Politics & International Relations
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.
Abstract: This thesis analyses different dynamics of the Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) from the perspective of Pakistan’s quest for water security. It looks at why the Indus mediations succeeded in 1960, what is the nature of the IWT and how and why is it under stress? To answer these questions, a qualitative research method was employed consulting both primary and secondary sources. This research found that the British security-oriented colonial irrigation policy of favoring one region over other regions of the Indus River Basin (IRB) shaped Pakistan’s post-Partition quest for water security. Motivated by the structural constraint of the Cold War tussle between communism and capitalism, the US-backed World Bank steered the Indus mediations to result in the IWT in 1960. In order to avoid India-Pakistan friction on the Indus waters, the IWT divided the Indus River System (IRS) between India and Pakistan, allocating the three Eastern Rivers (20 percent of the IRS) to India and the three Western Rivers (80 percent of the IRS) to Pakistan. The division of the IRS resulted in the sub-optimal and technical nature of the IWT. The IWT attempted to balance the Indian demand for equitable apportionment of water resources with Pakistan’s demand for water distribution on the basis of historic and no appreciable harm principle of international water law. However, the IWT also allowed limited Indian uses on the Western Rivers which served Pakistan’s downstream anxieties. When India began to execute its limited rights by constructing hydel projects on the Western Rivers in 1990s, the IWT underwent stress, which aggravated Pakistan’s quest for water security.
Gov't Doc #: 24146
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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