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Title: Social Exclusion of Children and its Effects on Human Capital in Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: Niaz, Uzma
Keywords: Social Sciences
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Government College University, Faisalabad
Abstract: Children are considered to be the future of a nation and the same is the case with Pakistan. It is undeniable fact that they are tomorrow’s profitable laborers and promising citizens. Vision 2025 echoes the commitment of the government towards creating the cognitive capital within the national improvement system of Pakistan considering it the exceptional premise for the nation’s financial development. This study is revolving around the determinants of social exclusion and its effects on human capital in Punjab, Pakistan. This study was conducted in three districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. Provincial administration was being run by dividing the Punjab Province into three zones, North Punjab, upper Punjab, and South Punjab. The researcher selected the South Punjab Zone conveniently. The researcher adopted the mixed method research (MMR) approach in which both qualitative and quantitative approaches were applied. The Concurrent triangulation strategy of mixed method research was carried out by merging both qualitative and quantitative data and collected data under both approaches were analyzed separately. The researcher applied the survey research design to implement the quantitative approach and 600 excluded children working at auto workshops were the respondents. Interview schedule was adopted as a data collection tool and this data was analyzed through SPSS, reflecting the univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistics. While qualitative approach was carried out by adopting the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as a research design and Interview Guide was used as a data collection tool from the respondents. Analysis of collected data from FGDs was done through content/thematic analysis. The findings of the univariate, bivariate and multivariate show the different socio economic, cultural, psychological, demographic issues as well as administrative and the governance deficiencies that are the reasons behind the social exclusion of children. At large, it was concluded that from the quantitative and qualitative data that social exclusion of children had a great effect on human capital. Strong associations among the dependent and independent variables and significant relationship between the variables under Multivariate analysis were seen and these results were fully supported by the univariate and multivariate statistics. Variables like family size, qualification of parents, income of the respondents, lacking in the provision of necessary education, unhygienic condition at work place for excluded children, financial constraints, poor health, harassment (Physical and Sexual), poor and slower legislation regarding child labor, access to education for the children and provision of basic fundamental rights depict the highly significant association with the dependent variable human capital. Moreover, gamma also determines the strength and direction of relationship and illustrates how these independent variables increase or decrease the human capital. The same variable is used in the multiple linear regression analysis that again shows the highly significant association. The conclusions were completely subsequent results of the qualitative analysis. Children working at workshops belong to the poor, uneducated and disturbed families. Such type of families prefers to put their children to work instead of putting them in schools. This is unanimously agreed that there is lack of governance, lack of provision of basic rights and other xiii basic necessities to the community, which supplement the issues of the poor people, and ultimately they are bound to send their children to labor. It was concluded that there was no networking between the parents of excluded children working at workshops, owners of auto workshops and government executives/ political leaders/NGOs/social development activists. Absence of implementing of local government system was observed in the targeted districts which is the only way to promote democracy. Adopting this system makes the provision of basic facilities possible even for the poor and disturbed families. The children who bear malnutrition in early life can face many functional problems in later ages of life. Malnourished children face many health issues and mostly suffer from diseases. Diseases and other health problems put the burden on the economy of the household as well as on the economy of the nation. The better nutrition and food most probably will produce more healthy and productive adults, but in turn will increase the human capital and economy. A number of measures to enhance the human capital by inclusion of children were made by the researcher on the basis of quantitative and qualitative studies. Different programs to support the poor people should be launched. Micro credit organizations and programs like BISP, PRSP, NRSP, Akhwat should increase the amount to a reasonable figure and should extend the time duration to return the loan. Equal implementing of law for all and discouraging discrimination between the rich and the poor people also include the excluded children and families in the mainstream. The Government must try to make the equal provision of basic facilities possible and by providing free education and health facilities to everyone without discrimination. Community-based health engagement services of malnutrition must be integrated to improve the immunity level of the children. Child Rights sensitization can also be done through media campaigns by targeting the public and children at large through government radio, private FM radio. When the children are aware they will stand up for their own rights too.
Gov't Doc #: 23650
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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