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Title: Implications of Glass Ceiling on Women's Career Advancements in Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: Naseer, Moazzama
Keywords: Social Sciences
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Government College University, Faisalabad
Abstract: Bullying, now a days, is reported as a risk factor of poor academic achievement among the school children all over the world (Migliaccio, 2015). The findings of recent researches indicated that teachers can play a vital role in bullying prevention and intervention among the school children with behavioral and academic problems (Srabstein & Leventhal, 2010) . In this scenario, current study focused on addressing bullying behavior among school children by developing and implementing an intervention plan for teachers and children. The study was carried out in three Phases. Phase-I aimed to explore the prevalence of bullying in rural areas of District Gujrat, Pakistan. Standardized Illinois Bullying Scale (Urdu version) was administered to 400 participants (female= 200, male=200) of Govt and private school children by using stratified random sampling. This scale has three subscales (victim, fight and bullying). Overall results indicated that maximum sample fall in the moderate category of victims (42.6%), fight (43.2%) and bullied (50.5%). These results indicated that a significant number of participants are vulnerable to bullying, therefore this issue must be addressed at school level by involving both the teachers and students (Shahzadi, Akram, et al., 2019). In Phase-II “The Handling Bullying Questionnaire” for teachers was adapted, translated and validated into Urdu language. It was intended to determine THBQ's psychometric characteristics. The experts estimated its content validity, whereas, cross language validation was established on 55 teachers (r=0.75). Construct validity was attained by administering EFA and CFA. For EFA data were collected from 200 teachers. The results of exploratory factor analysis fixed to six factors structure with 16 items as compare to original questionnaire with five factors and 22 items. Further, data were collected form another sample of 200 teachers for CFA. Model indicated a good model fit with (chi- square= 136.51 df= 92, CFA=0.91, RMSEA 0.04, GFI=0.92) and the final model confirmed five factors along with 16 items THBQ (Shahzadi, Dawood, et al., 2019). Phase-III aimed to provide intervention for decreasing bullying behavior of students with the help of teachers. This phase further divided into two studies. The main objective of study-I was to enable teachers to understand the bullying concept, identify the bullying behaviors and handle the bullying situation at school level. For this purpose, three days training workshop based on (awareness, assessment and management) was conducted with Informal, one group pre post experimental group design. Total 50 teachers form five different Govt schools of Gujrat were selected by using convenient sampling technique. Three consecutive day workshop of one hour per group was conducted for five groups (10 teachers in each group) and evaluation was done by using THBQ at pre- and post-treatment level. Findings indicated a statistically significant differences in the mean scores on THBQ at the levels of pre workshop (M=30.78, SD= 4.17, t= 19.82, p<.000) and post workshop (M=50.04, SD= 5.93, (Page 2 of 223) t= 19.82, p<.000). These results suggested that the teacher’s awareness, their ability to assess and handle the bullying behavior was significantly improved. On the other side, Study-II (Phase-III) focused to provide interventions to manage bully behaviors of school children. A total of 50 students who bully others were selected from the same Govt schools in which above mentioned three days training workshop was carried out. The participants with age range of 12-16 were referred by the trained teachers. This study constituted on 8 sessions with five groups of bullies (10 student in each group). Twice a week, one hour session was given to each group by using informal one group pre post experimental design. Illinois Bullying Scale (IBS) was used to measure the bullying behavior at before and after the bullying intervention program. Results indicated a significant decrease in bullying behavior at post intervention (M=8.5, SD= 5.42, p<.000) level as compare to at pre intervention level (M=28.16, SD= 12.60, p<.000). Current study provides valid and reliable THBQ questionnaire for teachers that will help them in addressing bullying behaviors of school children. Moreover, through this study an effective intervention plan for teachers to handle bullying behavior among the students as well as an intervention plan to reduce bully behavior of school children was developed. These two intervention plans can be used in further studies in Pakistan. Key Words: Bullying, Teachers, School, Children, Gujrat Pakistan
Gov't Doc #: 23648
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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