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dc.contributor.authorArshad, Muhammad Rasheed-
dc.description.abstractFrom 1789 to 1914 almost the whole Muslim world had been colonized by the European powers. In the wake of the establishment of Western political-military dominance over Muslim lands, the modern European thought started to permeate into every crevice and cranny of the colonized societies. The Islamic world had experienced extensive social changes in the colonial period. Muslims all over the world felt a sense of humility and impotency against their colonial masters. Islamic Modernism is a trend which arose as a response to Western colonial influence and to the eighteenth-century political decline of Muslim powers. Among the Muslim thinkers there was a strong feeling that the colonial powers had been able to conquer and subjugate Muslim societies by virtue of their superior technology and war machinery. However, the project of modernity faced a setback in the late twentieth century due to some historical developments at a global level, out of which the renaissance of religion in the social and political sphere as fundamentalist ideology was the most astonishing event. It startled social scientists all over the globe. A new wave of religious fundamentalism challenged the modern trend of sidelining religious discourse. The emergence of fundamentalism posed a real threat to the discourse of modernity. The wave of fundamentalism ended up creating a strange reaction not within the modernized societies but from the traditional religious and even from the theoretical fundamentalists. In the post 9/11 period, another trend emerged in the Muslim intellectual realm, namely, Liberal Islam. This reaction is the emergence of Cosmopolitan Liberalism in Islamic societies. With the rise of globalization, the liberal ideology turned into cosmopolitan liberalism. Day by day more and more Islamists and sympathizers of Islamism are getting disenchanted with the fundamentalist ideals. With the emergence of cosmopolitan liberalism, the discourse of Islamic Modernism, as well as Islamic fundamentalism, is losing its credibility, and its scope and appeal in the intelligentsia and the larger population is shrinking. With the advancements of Muslims in the economic race and the development competition, they will rearrange their priorities eventually. It is evident from the evidence that the academic, as well as public, the arena is going to be replaced by fundamentalism and eventually by cosmopolitan liberalism.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of Karachi, Karachi.en_US
dc.subjectSocial Sciencesen_US
dc.titleThe Dilemma of Islamic Modernism in Postcolonial Societies with Reference to Fundamentalism and Cosmopolitan Liberalismen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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