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dc.contributor.authorMangi, Shah Nawaz-
dc.description.abstractSince the first decade of the last century, democracy has attracted many researchers and policy makers of different fields. The existing literature is abundantly filled with various definitions and methods as how to measure the quality or effectiveness of democracy. Several scholars have examined democracy through different factors such as; education, governance, poverty, income, electoral process, political party, public attitude, intension, perception, tolerance, religion, justice, political apathy, civic values and many more. Despite of these studies, the universal model of measuring democracy is not clear in the published literature. Therefore, present study aims to measure democracy through public attitude along with six independent variables: trust in national institutions, trust in leader, political participation, political interest, conflict resolving behavior and democratic values in two Muslim Asian countries i-e Pakistan and Malaysia. In order to achieve the designed aim and objectives, relevant literature was extensively reviewed. On the basis of that literature a comprehensive conceptual model was developed. Data were collected by using a survey questionnaire, from the middle class of both countries. For the main study, 700 questionnaires were distributed in each country. Out of total distributed questionnaires, 448 from Pakistan and 427 from Malaysia were received respectively. After examining the data, 427 and 409 samples from Pakistan and Malaysia respectively, were declared valid for hypotheses testing. Further, data were examined by using SPSS and AMOS version 24.0. Descriptive analysis and EFA were measured with the help of SPSS; however, structural equation of model (SEM) was done through AMOS. Result shows that, out of twelve hypotheses, eight were accepted while four were rejected. Present study may finds that developmental approach is more useful to understand democratization in Pakistan as compared to the parliamentary approach. Further, meaningful political and managerial implications are also contributed. The results of the current study may provide guidelines for implementing new policies for the betterment of democratic process. KEY WORDS: Democratic attitude, middle class, political participation, political interest, trust in national institutions, trust in leader and democratic values.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of Sindh, Jamshoro.en_US
dc.subjectSocial Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectPolitical Scienceen_US
dc.titleMiddle Class Attitude Towards Democracy: A Comparative Study of Pakistan ans Malaysiaen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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