Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/17377
Title: An Analysis of Biological Threats: Apprehensions and Counter Strategies in Pakistan
Authors: Ali, Rubina
Keywords: Social Sciences
International Relations
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: International Islamic University, Islamabad
Abstract: This thesis addresses the issue of proliferation of biological weapons threats in the contemporary era. Biological threats posture significant risks to national and international security. The risk of a deliberate release of biological agents, whether by the terrorist groups or individual perpetrators, poses an immediate threat to the life and health of the population. Anthrax outbreaks in September 2001 crystallized the perception that terrorists were willing to victimize the lives of citizens. Deliberate dissemination of germs and the natural outbreaks produce death rates high between animals, plants or people. This research explores biological terrorism is relatively rare and has not been devoted to more attention. But the notion changed after the case of an anthrax letter, and people suddenly began to realise biological agents vulnerabilities. Therefore, anthrax attack brought a shift in the thinking and focused that the hostile states and numerous violent non-state actors can utilize biological agents in warfare or terrorist attack. Furthermore, the issues of proliferation of biological threat assess from multiple angles as primarily focus on the effectiveness of the legal parameter on the prohibition, development, production, accumulation, use and subsequent destruction of biological weapons. The study also investigates the capacity and capability of the Pakistan infrastructure to manage the new and emerging biological agents‘ threats. The study aims to assess the possible ways for the strengthening of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) regime. The study based on how existing institutional mechanism responded to biological threats on the global and the state level. Despite this, the regime theory in this study provides a suitable analytical framework for answering the question of the establishment, the efficiency and the stability of arms control regimes. The basic purpose of the study is filling gaps by focusing on the control and readiness against the proliferation of biological weapons. Throughout history, xi the states have been developed and use biological agents as a weapon. This thesis highlighted the countermeasure strategies at global levels, such as suppress the threat of bioterrorism or natural outbreak and the readiness of the states against the threat of biological weapons at the global level. More importantly, this part also explained how the international regime contributed to constraining the use of biological weapons. Regime theory profoundly used to analyse the effectiveness of the emerging regimes and evaluating how well implementation of the regime carried out and what reform might be in future to countering biological weapons and how various states have dangerous weaknesses in existing preparedness capabilities. The thesis presents Pakistan as a responsible state party of BWC and has a firm adherence to strengthening the BWC regime. Additionally, the study concludes trust or distrust in the BWC regime can influence the further development of the convention. The study posits that more intense effort needed in particular in the pursuit of effective biological defense and countering for futuristic biological outbreaks.
Gov't Doc #: 23579
URI: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/17377
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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