Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/17141
Title: Relationship among Enabling School Structure, Mindfulness and Academic Optimism in Secondary School Teachers of Punjab
Authors: Ahmad, Rizwan
Keywords: Social Sciences
Education
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: University of the Punjab , Lahore
Abstract: Schools operate as organizations. Like other organizations, these organizations share similar qualities as well as problems which eventually influence the success and failure of the entire organizations. Organizational changes in schools may bring about positive changes in those who work in the schools as well as to those who attend the schools. Schools operate with hierarchy of authority as well as rules, regulations and procedures which may be supportive or unsupportive. In an enabling structure, employees work cooperatively while retaining their distinct roles. Mindfulness is flexible state of mind in which employees are actively engaged in the present, notice new things and are sensitive to the context. It guides the behavior rather than predetermine it. It allows communicating openly and solving conflicts. Academic optimism is a collective set of beliefs regarding strength and capabilities of schools. It bonds collective efficacy, trust and academic emphasis. Here faculty believes to make the difference and students can learn. The ultimate goal of the research was to explore the relationship among enabling school structure, mindfulness and academic optimism. This research may contribute from theoretical, managerial, academic and practical perspectives. This research was delimited to government high schools located in Punjab province and only secondary school teachers were considered the subjects for this study. The research adopted quantitative approach to investigate the phenomenon. Purpose was to find out the relationship among the variables of research. Hence, the most suitable design was correlational research where the relationship was explored among the variables without influencing them. Variables were measured through cross-sectional survey which provided numerical description of the variables. Population of the research was all the secondary school teachers working in School Education department of Punjab province. Two stages random sampling technique was employed to select the desired ii sample. Selection of the sample took place in two stages. At first stage, twelve districts were randomly selected using lottery method. At second stage, twelve high schools were selected using table of random numbers. In this way 1266 teachers participated from 216 government high schools in the survey. Instrument of the study was comprised of four sections. First section was related to demographic characteristics of the secondary school teachers. Second section was comprised of Form-ESS. It measured the perception of teachers regarding enabling school structure. It included two subscales which were enabling structure and coercive structure. Third section included M-Scale. It measured the perception of teachers regarding mindfulness. The scale reflects collective perception regarding the behavior of principal as well as of the faculty on mindfulness. Fourth section of the instrument was comprised of Academic Optimism Survey. It included three subscales which were collective efficacy, trust and academic emphasis. All the tools were adapted with prior permission. Instrument contained negative statements which were reverse scored. The instrument was pilot tested to confirm the validity and reliability. Pilot testing confirmed the reliability of the instrument. The instrument was validated by the experts. Some modifications were made in the instrument suggested in the pilot testing. Moreover, validity and reliability of the scales were confirmed in various previous researches. Data were collected in scheduled meetings, after making appointments. An approximate response rate of 74.47 % was obtained after receiving 1266 of the 1700 distributed among teachers from 18 districts of Punjab. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Before the analysis, data were cleaned and assumptions were tested. At each stage, research ethics were followed. The perceptions of teachers indicated the structure of schools to be enabling rather than coercive. Perception regarding enabling structure was dominant as compared to iii coercive structure. Teachers perceived the leadership more mindful as compared to the faculty. Teachers confirmed the existence of academic optimism in schools as well as its three facets. It was observed that positive relationship exists between enabling school structure and academic optimism. Likewise, there was also positive relationship between mindfulness and academic optimism. As far as the relationship between mindfulness and enabling school structure is concerned, it was also positive. Cohen’s standards were used to evaluate the output of correlation. Results of regression analysis confirmed the findings of correlational analysis. On the basis of gender and experience statistical significant difference was observed in enabling school structure while on the basis of marital status, locality, qualification and age no statistically significant difference was seen. Significant difference was observed in mindfulness on the basis of gender whereas no statistically significant in marital status, locality, qualification, age and experience was observed. On the basis of demographic variables, no significant difference was observed in academic optimism. Leadership in a school which endeavors to influence the change should seriously ponder findings of this research as the source for developing positive characteristics. This research encourages the joining of academic optimism with enabling school structure and mindfulness practices for the administrators in developing effective leadership practices and organizational characteristics. It provides insight into how these variables work in school contexts. In the school setting, positive conditions such as ESS, mindfulness and AO complement each other to nurture an environment that affects the behavior positively in the school setting. Leadership might view school issues through the eyes of their employees in order to create a cooperative, collaborative, and helpful climate for teaching and learning. The researcher commends that this research be replicated in other varied population and geographic region.
Gov't Doc #: 23355
URI: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/17141
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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