Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/16771
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dc.contributor.author, Abdul Rauf-
dc.date.accessioned2021-07-27T05:51:29Z-
dc.date.available2021-07-27T05:51:29Z-
dc.date.issued2021-
dc.identifier.govdoc23137-
dc.identifier.urihttp://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/16771-
dc.description.abstractLanguage is human characteristics which facilitates for communication. Its learning has been a challenging process since the emergence of human being. Language learning is bifurcated as the first language acquisition and the second language learning. Language acquisition is an unconscious process whereas learning is a conscious process. Second language acquisition refers to learning any other language in addition to a person‘s first language. Various learning strategies and activities that make the process of second language acquisition easy and effective have been promulgated for teaching and learning a language. The effectiveness of these activities for language teaching and learning has been claimed by their proponents. Every language learning activity has its exclusive function. Directed activities related to texts (DARTs) were claimed to be effective for developing reading comprehension and writing skills of a language. The current study was conducted to find out the effect of DARTs on English reading comprehension and writing skills of grade XI students. This experimental study was carried out using pre test post-test control group design at a public sector degree college for boys of district Lahore, Pakistan. Sixty students of grade XI were selected randomly. They were divided randomly into two equal groups. Experimental group was given treatment of 16 weeks in DARTs. For this, 96 lessons were planned and validated by the experts. Data were collected through two achievement tests on pre-test and post-test basis. Tests were developed after developing a table of specification and following National Curriculum (2006) and corresponding English textbooks recommended by Punjab Curriculum and Textbook Board Lahore. The first achievement test was MCQs type having 60 items. It was developed to measure students‘ English reading comprehension. The second achievement test was supply type which was developed iii to measure students‘ English writing skills. Validity of achievement tests was ensured through experts‘ opinions having expertise in the field of teaching English as a second language and research. Pilot study revealed .86 reliability value for English reading comprehension test and .84 for English writing skill test. The collected data were analyzed by using Paired samples t-test and Independent samples t-tests. The effect size was measured through Cohen‘s d test. The findings revealed that DARTs were effective for teaching English reading comprehension and English writing skills. English writing skills include relevance and adequacy of the content, adequacy of the vocabulary for purpose, grammar, mechanical accuracy I (punctuations), and mechanical accuracy II (spellings). Study findings revealed that DARTs were relatively more effective for teaching English reading comprehension than English writing skills. English teachers of grade XI were recommended to use DARTs as classroom activities for teaching English reading comprehension and writing skills. Grade XI students were recommended to experience DARTs individually or in groups under the guidance of their English teachers to learn English reading comprehension and writing skills. Key Words: Second Language Acquisition, English Reading Comprehension, English Writing Skills, Directed Activities Related to Texts, English as Second Languageen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of the Punjab , Lahoreen_US
dc.subjectSocial Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectEducationen_US
dc.titleEffect of Directed Activities Related to Texts on English Reading Comprehension and Writing Skills of Grade XI Studentsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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