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Title: Hydro Chemical Analysis of Lower Indus Basin Pakistan (A Multivariate Statistical Approach)
Authors: Ahmad, Waqar
Keywords: Social Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Federal Urdu University of Arts Sciences & Tech. Islamabad
Abstract: The current study explores the quality of water of the lower Indus basin. Forty one locations were selected in the province of Sindh for the investigation of physico-chemical characteristics, heavy metals and microbial analysis in water of the lower Indus basin. Water samples were collected during pre and post monsoon seasons in the years 2011 and 2012 from different localities of Indus River and its tributaries from Kashmore to Keti-Bander. Physical parameters were analyzed at sampling site while chemical parameters were carried out in the laboratory using standard techniques of water investigation developed by the American Public Health Association. The heavy metals concentrations were determined through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer while microbial analysis was performed by using most probable number (MPN) technique. Multivariate statistical techniques, namely, factor analysis (with varimax rotation) and agglomerative cluster analysis (CA) were applied to understand the data and to find out the causes of water contamination. The communalities indicated the importance of variables. Cluster analysis showed two major groups: First group included all the samples from Kashmore to Hyderabad (Phuleli Gooni canal) while the second group comprised of samples from Hyderabad outlet to Keti Bander. Results of factor analysis supported the findings of cluster analysis. Essentially similar results were obtained for the years 2011 and 2012 as demonstrated by the two multivariate techniques. Some physico-chemical characteristics like Total Hardness, Turbidity, Alkalinity and Chemical Oxygen Demand went above the permissible limits set by World Health Organization (2008) guidelines. They were found to some extent higher than the maximum allowable limits, which are stated in the WHO (2008) guidelines. Heavy metals, like Lead, Mercury and Cadmium also crossed WHO, 2008 permissible limits during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods of 2011 and 2012. However, the levels of few physico-chemical characteristics such as (Potassium, Sodium, Nitrate, Sulphate, Electrical Conductivity, Chloride, pH) and heavy metals (Iron, Zinc, Copper) were within allowable limits of WHO (2008) guidelines for potable water. Water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen were also noted to be iv suitable for aquatic life. Microbial analysis indicated that fecal coliform exceeded the range of WHO (2008) safe limits. It was observed that there are some power plants, fertilizer and food processing industries near the Indus River, which release their waste or effluents into the river without pre-treatment. Such practices should be immediately ceased on priority basis in order to provide drinkable and safe water to the public at large.
Gov't Doc #: 21403
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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