Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/16498
Title: Performance of Dual Purpose Chicken Genotypes Under Alternative Production Systems
Authors: Usman, Muhammad
Keywords: Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences
Poultry Production
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Abstract: The present thesis explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits, behavior, blood biochemistry, antibody response, egg characteristics and hatching traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6 th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels was divided into conventional cages, enriched cages and aviary system having 200 birds in each. Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). The body weight and morphometric measurements were observed from 6 to 16 weeks. At the end of 16 weeks, carcass traits were evaluated by Halal slaughtering of 96 birds (48 cockerels and 48 pullets; 4 birds from each treatment group) randomly picked from the population. During the rearing phase (17-20 weeks), a total of 480 birds comprising of 240 pullets with 240 cockerels (60 pullets and 60 cockerels from each crossbred) were used to evaluate the morphometric measurements, behavior, serum chemistry and antibody response. During the production phase (27-46 weeks), to evaluate the productive efficiency, a total of 180 birds comprising of 144 pullets with 36 cockerels (36 pullets and 9 cockerels from each crossbred) were maintained in three production systems with 48 pullets and 12 cockerels in each. To evaluate egg quality parameters, a total of 60 eggs (5 eggs/ treatment group) were used at the start and terminal phase of the experiment. Data were analyzed in SAS software with production systems and genotype as the main effects. Tukey’s HSD test was employed to compare treatment means at significance level of P ≤ 0.05. During the growing phase, the RB and BR males showed higher carcass yield (P <0.01), drumstick weight (P <0.01), breast weight (P <0.01) and thigh weight (P <0.01) than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher breast weight (P <0.01), thigh weight (P <0.05) and drumstick weight (P <0.05). Higher liver weight (P <0.01), heart weight (P <0.01), breast weight (P <0.01), intestinal weight (P <0.01), drumstick weight (P <0.01) and thigh weight (P <0.01) were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher heart weight (P <0.01), breast weight (P <0.01), intestinal weight (P <0.01), drumstick weight (P <0.01) and thigh weight (P <0.01) when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. During the rearing phase, results revealed that higher body weight (P <0.05), and body length (P <0.05) were noticed in RB and BR genotypes than those of BB and RR genotypes. Higher drumstick length (P <0.05) and shank circumference (P <0.05) were observed in RB genotypes. Chickens reared in enriched cages showed higher body weight (P <0.05) and body lengths (P <0.05) than other production systems. Higher dust bathing (P <0.05), feeding (P <0.05), jumping (P <0.05) and dust bathing (P <0.05) were observed in chickens reared in aviary system than other production systems while maximum perching behavior (P <0.05) was showed by the chickens reared in enriched cages. The highest glucose level (P <0.05) was observed in RR genotypes followed by RB, BR and BB genotype. The highest glucose (P <0.05) level was observed in chickens reared in aviary systems followed by conventional and enriched cages. Highest antibody titers against ND and IB (P <0.05) were observed in chickens reared in aviary systems followed by enriched and conventional cages. During the production phase, results revealed higher body weight (initial, P <0.01 and final, P <0.01), egg production percentage (P <0.01) and egg weight (P <0.01) in enriched cage followed by conventional cages and aviary system. Higher egg weight (initial, P <0.01 and final, P <0.01), egg surface area (initial, P <0.01 and final, P <0.01) and egg volume (initial, P <0.01 and final, P <0.01) were observed in enriched cages when compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Higher fertility percentage (P <0.01) and hatchability percentage (P <0.01) were observed in the aviary system followed by enriched cages and conventional cages. The RB and BR chickens showed higher body weight (initial, P <0.01, and final, P <0.01), egg production percentage (P <0.01), egg weight (initial, P <0.05 and final, P <0.01), egg volume (initial, P <0.01 and final, P <0.01) and surface area (final, P <0.01) than BB and RR genotypes. The RB chickens showed higher fertility percentage (P <0.01) and hatchability percentage (P <0.01) followed by BR, RR and BB chickens. It is concluded that during the growing phase, chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological viii measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary. During the rearing phase, the RB and BR genotypes had better body weight and body length. Among genotypes, chickens reared in enriched cage system had better morphological traits while plasma glucose level and antibody response were more pronounced in the aviary production system along with more explorative natural behavior. During the production phase, chickens in the enriched cage system performed better than other systems except for hatching traits which were better in an aviary system. Among genotypes, RB and BR performed better than BB and RR genotypes. Keywords: Crossbred chickens; alternative production systems; carcass traits; morphometric measurements, antibody response, genotypes, serum chemistry, hatchability, egg quality
Gov't Doc #: 21376
URI: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/16498
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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