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Title: Implications of Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Prognostic Importance in Lead Exposed Subjects
Authors: Waqas, Muhammad
Keywords: Biological & Medical Sciences
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: The University of Lahore, Lahore.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Before sixteen century lead and tin were observed as same metal, at that time lead was known as plumbum nigrum (black lead) and tin as plumbum candidum (Bright lead). Pure lead has significant physical properties it is bluish-white in color having bright shine, and generate crystals in face centered-cubic structure. The early history of lead can be evaluated by the Neolithic settlement Catlhoyuk’s traces present before 6,400 BC. Lead has been used as an anti-knocking agent in petroleum that is exhaust in the atmosphere and is the major reason for lead toxicity. Traffic wardens that are performing their duties in controlling traffic population are significant victim of lead exposure. METHODOLOGY: Three hundred and seventeen (n=317) traffic wardens who served in traffic environment for at least five years with hemoglobin (Hb) levels less than 10µg/dl and hundred (n=100) warden performing their duty inside offices were substituted for the current study. Before getting the samples, subjects were provided with the informed consent. 5 ml blood was drawn and serum was separated after centrifugation. All experiment was done under the ethical guidelines of the University of Lahore. Various biochemical variables such as, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Catalase (CAT), vitamins and different stress variables were evaluated in the subjects with help of their respective ELISA and spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: According to present study levels of MDA, NO and TNF-α were increased significantly (4.59±0.47nmol/ml, 53.22±5.74µmol/L and 6.199±1.006pg/ml respectively) in lead exposed traffic wardens as compared to healthy controls (1.39±0.39nmol/ml, 18.78±2.54µmol/L and 2.09±0.861pg/ml). Non-Enzymatic and Enzymatic antioxidants such as GSH, SOD, CAT, Vit-A, Vit-C, Vit-E were decreased significantly in subjects (309±1.26µg/ml, 0.43±0.06µg/ml, 1.87±0.48nmol/mol, 411.98±18.94mg/g, 0.21±0.034mg/g and 0.15±0.015mg/L respectively) as compared to healthy controls (11.98±2.38µg/ml, 1.56±0.08µg/ml, 3.99±0.72nmol/mol, 566±23.64mg/g, 0.33±0.041mg/g and 0.20±0.01mg/L). Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, 6, 10, 13 and 17 were also increased due to high exposure of lead in traffic wardens as compared to healthy controls. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 13 were also increased in traffic warden (88.65±11.56ng/ml, 105.56±8.65ng/ml, 37.29±5.29ng/ml, 99.11±6.03ng/ml, 205±7.11ng/ml and 168.01±7.13ng/ml respectively) as compared to healthy controls (33.65±2.56ng/ml, 45.36±11.65ng/ml, 17.19±4.61ng/ml, 29.65±3.21ng/ml, 45.35±8.19ng/ml and 41.65±2.99ng/ml). Enzymes such as ALAD, ALAS, ferrochelatase and G6PD were significantly decreased in subjects (11.09±1.87U/L, 24.26±4.26U/L, 1.09±0.457ng/ml and 2.09±0.37U/L respectively) as compared to healthy controls (19.45±2.65U/L, 53.71±5.26U/L, 4.29±1.05ng/ml and 17.26±1.99U/L). Levels of lead were significantly increased (29.76±3.76µg/dl) in traffic wardens that were highly exposed to traffic exhaust as compared to the healthy traffic wardens (1.54±0.169µg/dl) who were performing their duty in offices. Levels of Glycine and Serine were also increased in traffic wardens as compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Current study suggests that lead plays an important role in hemolytic anemia. Lead induce oxidative stress and suppresses the levels of specific enzymes such as ALAD, ALAS and Ferrochelatase that are involved in heme synthesis. Lead also reduces the levels of G6PD that plays a key role in production of Glycine; a substrate for heme synthesis that is one of the main reasons for the reduction of hemoglobin. Keywords: Lead, ALAD, ALAS, Ferrochelatase, Glycine, Serine, G6PD, MDA, CAT
Gov't Doc #: 23002
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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