Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/16327
Title: Evaluation of different anesthetic agents alone and in combination using constant rate infusion in premedicated goats during pain management
Authors: Asif, Muhammad
Keywords: Biological & Medical Sciences
Veterinary Surgery
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Abstract: Intravenous anesthesia is only the option to maintain general anesthesia under field conditions. Anesthesia can be induced and maintained more effectively by first administering the bolus infusion followed by continuous infusion of any anesthetic agent. This study was planned with two objectives; one was to investigate the sedatives and dose sparing effects of different doses of detomidine and midazolam and second was to develop a suitable total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) technique by comparative efficacy of propofol and ketamine anesthesia using constant rate infusion in premedicated goats during pain management. The study was completed in two phases. During phase-1, three experiments were conducted to investigate sedative and dose sparing effects of three different doses of detomidine and midazolam. In the first experiment of phase-1, in total of twelve (12) healthy female goats were randomly divided into six treatment groups (A1, B1, C1, D1, E1 and F1) comprising two animals each. Group (A1) was treated as a control group that after premedication with normal saline @ 0.2 ml/kg, received propofol @ 4.20±0.10 mg/kg body weight. Group B1 and C1 animals after sedation with detomidine @ 15 µg/kg body weight, received different doses of propofol and ketamine respectively. Similarly, Group D1 and E1 animals after sedation with midazolam @ 0.25 mg/kg body weight, received different doses of propofol and ketamine respectively. While, Group F1 animals after premedication with a combination of detomidine+ midazolam @ 7 µg/kg+ 0.12 mg/kg body weight, received different doses of combination of propofol-ketamine to produce a level of anesthesia required for placing an endotracheal tube. During experiment-2, in total of twelve (12) healthy female goats were randomly divided into six treatment groups (A2, B2, C2, D2, E2 and F2) comprising two animals each. Group A2 animals were treated as a control group that premedicated with normal saline @ 0.2 ml/kg body weight, followed fifteen minute later by induction with ketamine @ 4.15±0.05 mg/kg body weight. Group B2 and C2 animals after premedication with detomidine @ 20 µg/kg body weight, received different doses of propofol and ketamine respectively. Similarly, Group D2 and E2 animals after sedation with midazolam @ 0.30 mg/kg body weight, received different doses of propofol and ketamine respectively. While, Group F2 animals after premedication with a combination of detomidine + midazolam @ 10 µg/kg+ 0.15 mg/kg body weight, received different doses of a combination of propofol-ketamine to produce a level of anesthesia required for placing an endotracheal tube. Similarly, during experiment-3, in a total of twelve (12) healthy female goats were randomly divided into six treatment groups (A3, B3, C3, D3, E3 and F3) comprising two animals each. Group A3 animals were treated as a control group that after premedication with normal saline @ 0.2 ml/kg body weight, received a combination of propofol-ketamine @ 2 mg/kg for each. Group B3 and C3 animals after premedication with detomidine @ 25 µg/kg body weight, received different doses of propofol and ketamine respectively. Similarly, Group D3 and E3 animals after premedication with midazolam @ 0.40 mg/kg body weight, received different doses of propofol and ketamine respectively. While, Group F3 animals after premedication with a combination of detomidine + midazolam @ 12 µg/kg + 0.20 mg/kg body weight, received different doses of combination of propofol ketamine to produce a level of anesthesia needed for placing an endotracheal tube. In all three experiments, the degree of sedation, analgesia, induction dose, % age reduction in induction dose, anesthesia quality and clinico-physiological parameters were evaluated before sedation, after sedation, during anesthesia to till recovery. All sedation regimens tested in this study caused sedation and reduction in induction dose. However, significant deep sedation, maximum % age reduction in induction dose and a better quality anesthesia with a maximum increase in duration and minimum negative impact on cardiopulmonary function was observed in the group treated with a combination of detomidine midazolam-propofol-ketamine at all three doses. During experiment- 4, the comparative efficacy of propofol and ketamine anesthesia was evaluated to develop a suitable total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) technique using constant rate infusion in pre-medicated goats during pain management. For this purpose, in total of eighteen (18) healthy female goats were randomly divided into three treatment groups (A, B and C) comprising six animals each. Group A animals were first sedated with detomidine @ 2.5 µg/kg followed by induction with propofol @ 4 mg/kg body weight and maintenance with constant rate infusion of (detomidine 2.5µg/kg/hr+ propofol 9.6 mg/kg/hr). While in group B, after sedation with midazolam @ 0.25 mg/kg body weight, induction was done with ketamine @ 4 mg/kg body weight and maintenance with constant rate infusion of (midazolam 0.25 mg/kg/hr + ketamine 2.4 mg/kg/hr). ABSTRACT ix Similarly in group C, after sedation with a combination of (detomidine @ 1.2 µg/kg + midazolam 0.12 mg/kg) body weight, induction was done with a combination of (propofol 1 mg/kg+ ketamine 1mg/kg) and maintenance with constant rate infusion of combination of all (detomidine 1.2 µg/kg/hr +midazolam 0.12 mg/kg/hr + propofol 4.5 mg/kg/hr + ketamine 1.2 mg/kg/hr) respectively using a volumetric syringe driving pump. Anesthesia was maintained for sixty (60) minutes in all groups and rumenotomy was performed. Anesthetic, clinico-physiological and haematobiochemical parameters were evaluated at different time intervals during anesthesia. The overall observation on clinico-physiological and haematobiochemical parameters showed that both anesthesia and surgical stress induced some alterations in their values but, these alterations were found temporary in nature without any clinical significance. Moreover, total intravenous anesthesia maintained with a combination of detomidine-midazolam propofol-ketamine was proved to be the best drug combinations taking into account the anesthetic, clinico-physiological and haematobiochemical parameters. Keywords: Pain management, total intravenous anesthesia, constant rate infusion, rumenotomy, goat.
Gov't Doc #: 22980
URI: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/16327
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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