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Title: Comparison of metabolite profiles and biological activities of Cycase revoluta and Cycas circinalis leaf extract from Pakistan
Authors: Arshad, Muhammad
Keywords: Physical Sciences
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Government College University, Lahore.
Abstract: Current study was designed to explore the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Cycas revoluta (C. revoluta) and Cycas circinalis (C. circinalis) leaf extracts due to their use in local medicinal system as possible natural candidates for the management/treatment of diabetes mellitus. The extraction was optimized using different combination of water and ethanol (Aqueous, 20% ethanolic, 40% ethanolic, 60% ethanolic, 80% ethanolic and pure ethanol). For both the plants, 60% ethanolic extracts were revealed to be the most potent with optimal antioxidant and anti diabetic effects. The highest extract yields of 19.27±0.07% and 20.97±0.20% were obtained with 60% ethanol for C. revoluta and C. circinalis, respectively. The highest total phenolic contents i.e., 125.33±1.28 and 154.24±3.28 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dry extract were observed for leaf extract of C. revoluta and C. circinalis, respectively, whereas total flavonoid contents of ethanolic extracts of C. revoluta and C. circinalis were 58.20±1.34 and 78.52±1.65 mg rutin equivalent per gram dry extract, respectively being the highest. The 60% ethanolic extracts of both plants also exhibited highest 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activity, total antioxidant power, beta carotene bleaching and iron chelating activity. The IC50 value for 60% ethanolic extract of C. revoluta to inhibit α-glucosidase was 66.80±2.45 µg/mL and for C. circinalis was 58.42±2.22 µg/mL. The α-amylase inhibitory values for 60% ethanolic extract of C. revoluta and C. circinalis were also higher i.e., 82.01±2.1 and 74.11±1.7, respectively. The statistical analysis indicated that the values of extract yields, antioxidant activities and enzyme inhibition were significantly higher for 60% ethanolic extract (ρ<0.05). The proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H-NMR) spectra of C. revoluta and C. circinalis confirmed the presence of polyphenols due to peaks in relevant regions. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with mass spectromometer (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) analysis confirmed the presence of apigenin diglucoside isomers, kaempferol derivative, hexadecenoic acid and citric acid in 60% ethanolic extract of C. revoluta while iridoid glucoside, gibberllins A4, O-beta-D-glucosyl-4-hydroxy-cinnamate, 3-methoxy-2- phyenyl-4-H-furo (2,3-h) chromen-4-one, kaempferol, withaferin A, amentoflavone, quercitin-3- O-(6”-malonyl glucoside), ellagic acid and gallic acid in C. circinalis leaf extract. The binding energy data obtained by molecular docking also confirmed the the possible role of identified metabolite to interact/inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. The extract dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. of both the plants lowered the blood glucose level of alloxonated mice sufficiently and comparable to attenuation caused by metformin. Improvement in lipid profile was also observed but not much effective as was the case with blood glucose. However, the antioxidant and antidiabetic efficiencies for C. circinalis were slightly pronounced than C. revoluta. Both the plants are proved as good source for naturopathic treatment of diabetes most probably due to possible synergistic impact of secondary metabolites, hence may be extended for pharmacological and functional food development in future.
Gov't Doc #: 21250
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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