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Title: Detoxification of ochratoxin A by Industrial waste and its evaluation in broilers
Authors: Mujahid, Huma
Keywords: Biological & Medical Sciences
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Abstract: The poultry industry plays a vital role in providing adequate food for the human population in most of the countries. Pakistan is basically an agricultural country and the livestock industry including poultry are providing relatively cheaper protein source for consumers and provide many job opportunities in Pakistan. This industry is facing many bottlenecks, such as poultry diseases through feed contamination, which lowers its production capacity. The presence of mycotoxins produced by molds in poultry feed production is the major reason of chick feed toxicity. Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus and Pencillium. OTA adversely affect the productive performance in Broilers resulting in increased mortality. So, it is imperative to find a method to detoxify or eliminate this mycotoxin from poultry feed. Industrial waste materials such as yeast sludge and whey are produced in bulk quantities by alcohol production Industry and Dairy Industry. These waste materials are not only nutritionally beneficial but they also have the potential to detoxify ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A producing fungal strain was procured from Pathology Department, University of Agriculture Faisalabad and culture maintained on Sabraud's Dextrose Agar. Ochratoxin A was produced by solid state fermentation on wheat grains. Extraction of ochratoxin was performed by immunoaffinity column chromatography and structure confirmed by FTIR analysis. The concentration OTA was determined by HPLC. Industrial waste materials was procured from Shukur Gunj sugar Mill Jhang and whey were collected from Nestle Factory, Sheikhupura. Proximate analysis of yeast sludge and whey was performed to determine the inherent nutritional potential of these substances. For biological evaluation day old broiler chicks (n= 1750) were randomly divided into seven groups. Each group has five replicates, 50 birds per replicate. The chicks were assigned seven experimental rations A, B, C, D, E, F, and G randomly for a period of five weeks. A (Normal Feed), B (Ochratoxin A 200ppb), C (200ppb Ochratoxin A and 2% Yeast sludge), D (200ppb Ochratoxin A and 2% Yeast cell mass), E (200ppb Ochratoxin A and 2% Yeast cell wall), F (200ppb Ochratoxin A and 2% whey), G (200ppb Ochratoxin A and 2% commercial material used against ochratoxin A). Vaccination against N.D and IBD was performed according to standard practice. During feeding trial weight gain/loss, feed consumption, FCR and mortality rate was recorded. Serum samples were collected from experimental/control birds at the end of the experimental trial by randomly selecting birds from each replicate. At the end of trial, one bird from each replicate is slaughtered and tissue sample such as liver, kidney, muscle and heart were collected and stored at -20°C for tissue residue analysis and liver kidney and Bursa of fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin solution for histopathological evaluation. Serum Total protein, serum Albumin, Activity of ALT, AST and serum creatinine levels were determined by using commercially available kits (Human) by chemistry analyzer. Hemagglutination Inhibition titer against NDV was also determined. Ochratoxin A was extracted from the samples by using immunoaffinity column chromatography. Levels of OTA in tissues were estimated by HPLC. Amount of ochratoxin A produced by solid state fermentation on wheat grain was 506 µg per 25g wheat biomass. Body weight was significantly decreased in OTA- treated group (Group B) when compared to all experimental groups. The adverse effect of OTA on weight gain was observed progressively from week 1 to week 5. Addition of yeast sludge, YSCM, YSCW, whey and commercial binder significantly improved the weight gain in Broilers. Amount of feed consumed (FC) per chicks per week was negatively affected by OTA contaminated diet. The trend was clearly observed in OTA Summary 61 group throughout the experimental period from the first week till the end of the experiment when compared with other experimental groups. Supplementing broiler diets with yeast sludge, YSCM, YSCW and whey showed improvement in FC of broilers fed with OTA contaminated diets. The addition of yeast sludge components, whey and commercial binder to broiler diets showed improvement in FCR of birds fed with OTA-contaminated ration. Supplementing broiler diets with yeast sludge, YSCM, YSCW and whey in the presence of OTA alleviate the toxic effect of OTA on broiler mortality. Biochemical parameters such as serum total protein and albumin were found to be decreased in OTA fed group. Supplementation of OTA contaminated feed with yeast sludge, YSCM, YSCW and whey significantly improved the level of Serum total protein and Albumin. The activity of ALT, AST and serum creatinine level was found to be highest in the group treated with 200ppb OTA as compared to other groups due to its hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Significant improvement was observed in all other groups. HI titer against NDV was lowest in OTA treated group as compared to other groups. Pathological changes on the liver of OTA treated group was increased size, inflammation and yellow discoloration. Kidneys were also swollen and have hemorrahges. Whereas the Liver and kidney were almost normal in all other groups only mild effects were observed. Histopathological studies revealed that liver of OTA treated birds have severe cellular degeneration, coagulation, necrosis and inflammation of inflammatory cells. Improvements were observed in all other groups with mild histological changes. Kidney of OTA treated group exhibit cellular degeneration, necrosis in the epithelial cells of renal tubules, cellular swelling, pyknosis, karyorecksis in many epithelial cells, the cytoplasm of the cells is more homogenous as compared to control. Improvements were observed in all the other groups. High toxin concentrations were detected in tissue samples of OTA fed group. Whereas in groups fed with diet supplemented with yeast sludge, yeast sludge cell mass (YSCM), yeast sludge cell wall (YSCW), whey and commercial binder a considerable decrease in plasma and tissue levels was observed. In conclusion, the present study revealed the adverse effects of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A on performance, blood biochemistry and histopathological parameters in broiler chicken. This study also revealed very good preventive action of Industrial waste materials yeast sludge, yeast sludge cell mass, yeast sludge cell wall and whey in terms of productive performance, serum biochemical, Histopathological studies .and tissue residues of ochratoxin A.
Gov't Doc #: 21021
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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