Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/15052
Title: Phytochemical and Biological Studies of Calligonum polygonoides and Crateva adansonii
Authors: Pervaiz, Irfan
Keywords: Biological & Medical Sciences
Pharmacy
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Islamia University, Bahawalpur.
Abstract: The role of natural products in the treatment of diseases has inspired scientists in their search for new avenues in drug discovery. The use of medicinal plants is registered in most ancient archaeological sources, and, even today, plant-derived molecules occupy a significant portion of the pharmaceuticals. The relation of pharmaceutical chemistry and natural product is very old and it provides variety of leads for the development of drugs. The aim of the present study is to collect the local medicinal plant and evaluate them for their biological activity. Therefore I selected two indigenous medicinal plants Calligonum polygonoides and Crateva adansonii and a comprehensive work has been done on these selected plants for their bioactive components. The whole dissertation has been divided into two parts A and B. The first chapter of this thesis gives a general overview on important compounds isolated from plant and now used as medicine in modern age. It also explains the role of major classes of natural products which serve as antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Part A In part A chapter 2 give description of plant family and various species of this family are discussed thoroughly. Brief literature review on bioactive constituents isolated from plants of this family are reported in this chapter. The chapter 3 is composed of results obtained from present work on Calligonum polygonoides. The aerial portion of Calligonum polygonoides was extracted with methanol and fractionated into three fractions on the base of polarity (n-hexane, chloroform and n butanol). The crude extract and polarity base fractions were evaluated for xanthine oxidase, carbonic anhydrase and α-glucosidase, tyrosinase and urease inhibitory activities. The iii crude methanolic extract along with n-butanol showed high inhibition of xanthine oxidase with IC50 value of 43.68±0.4 and 37.74±0.56 µg/mL, carbonic anhydrase with IC50 value of 46.94±0.4 and 32.31± 0.6 µg/mL, α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 59 ± 0.64 and 27.61±0.18 µg/mL respectively. All other fractions failed to inhibit tyrosinase enzyme. n hexane fraction displayed strong activity against urease (IC50 value of 12± 0.68 µg/mL). The n-hexane fraction was further screened through GC-MS. The methanolic fraction was analysed via LC-MS. The two most bioactive fraction n-hexane and n-butanol were proceeded for isolation of bioactive compounds. The chromatographic separation result in isolation of total 10 compounds, three sterols from n-hexane fraction and seven flavonoids/glycosides from n-butanol fraction previously not reported from this source. Structure elucidation of these compounds was carried out by using modern spectroscopic techniques (IR, NMR and mass spectrometry). Sterols displayed remarkable urease inhibitory activity and flavonoids isolated from n-butanol fraction showed strong inhibition of xanthine oxidase, carbonic anhydrase and α-glucosidase. Part B In part B Chapter 5 gives details of Capparaceae family and various species of this family are discussed thoroughly. A brief literature review on bioactive constituents isolated from plants of this family is reported in this chapter. The chapter 6 is composed of results obtained from present work on Crateva adansonii. The aerial parts of Crateva adansonii is extracted with methanol and fractionated into three fractions on the basis of polarity (n-hexane, chloform and n-butanol). The crude extract and different fractions were assessed for xanthine oxidase, carbonic anhydrase and α glucosidase, tyrosinase and urease inibitory activities. The crude methanolic extract iv showed high inhibition of xanthine oxidase with IC50 value of 42.2 ± 0.6µg/mL, carbonic anhydrase with IC50 value of 29.3 ± 0.6 µg/mL, α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 27.95 ± 0.19 µg/mL, tyrosinase with IC50 value of 28.96 ± 0.36µg/mL. Chloroform fraction exhibited high activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 24.15 ± 0.45 and tyrosinase with IC50 value of 17.37 ± 0.47 µg/mL. n-hexane fraction displayed strong activity against urease enzyme (IC50 value of 10±0.5 µg/mL). The n-hexane fraction was further screened through GC-MS. The methanolic fraction was analysed via LC-MS. The three most bioactive fractions (n- hexane, n-butanol and chloroform) were further selected for isolation of bioactive components. The chromatographic separation resulted in isolation of total 10 compounds, three lupane triterpenes from n-hexane fraction and two pheophorbides and two sphingolipids from chloroform fraction. One alkaloid and two glycosides were isolated from n-butanol fraction. All of above phytochemicals have been discovered for the first time from this source. Triterpenes displayed noteworthy urease inhibitory activity and pheophorbides isolated from chloroform fraction showed strong inhibition of tyrosinase and α glucosidase. Compounds reported from n-butanol showed significant inhibition of only carbonic anhydrase. Structure elucidation of these compounds was carried out by modern spectroscopic methodologies i.e; IR, NMR and Mass spectrometry.
Gov't Doc #: 20289
URI: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/15052
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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