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Title: Formulating Real Time Irrigation Scheduling Using Microwave Signal Data of Cellular Communication Networks for Enhancing Soil and Water Productivity
Authors: Afzal, Muhammad Sohail
Keywords: Engineering & Technology
Agricultural Engineering
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Abstract: Dwindling water resources of Pakistan demands proper water management of available resources to meet crop water requirements of 20mha agricultural land. This could only be attained, if we have sufficient data on incoming and outgoing fluxes of water budget. Rainfall being the most important parameter has to be measured continuously at both spatial and temporal scales. However, due to lack of available resources (rain gauge stations), it is difficult to get it measurement at continuous space and time domain. While satellite rainfall estimates are at very coarse resolution resulting in over or under estimation. For the purpose, an innovative methodology was proposed to measure rainfall using available telecommunication towers of cellular companies operating in the country. An algorithm was established to calculate rainfall at high spatio-temporal scale using commercial cellular network covering 250 km2 area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. The microwave links were used to quantify rainfall intensities and estimate rainfall at high spatio-temporal resolution. The attenuation in electromagnetic signals due to varying rainfall intensities measured by taking difference between the power transmitted and power received during rainy period and measure of the path-averaged rainfall intensity. This distortion in the signal was converted into rainfall intensity at a temporal resolution of 15 minutes. Signal data-set of year 2012(Jan-Oct) was used for sensitivity analysis of input parameters and model calibration. The model validation was verified using two independent signal data sets of year (2012(Nov) – 2014) and (2015-2017). Three rain gauges (reference) available within the study area were used for analysis. Daily cumulative rainfall depth obtained from rain gauges installed at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (UAF-RG), Ayub Agriculture Research Institute (AR-RG) and Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA-RG) were compared with the rainfall estimated at three cellular links close to these gauges. The co-efficient of determination (R2 ) was estimated at 0.97. UAF-RG was used as reference to study the spatial variability of rainfall of all the selected links within the study area and observed 10%-60% average spatial variation of all links with the reference UAF-RG. The data obtained from this pilot study was used to do real time irrigation scheduling for high value crops grown using drip (SI and SSI) irrigation system. Efficiency of SSDI system for optimal depth and irrigation level was evaluated for onion (Allium cepa .L,)and peas(Pisum sativum L.). The presented goal was performed on onion crop sown on raised beds and irrigated through surface and subsurface drip irrigation for two years (i.e. 2015-2016 and 2016-2017). Three irrigation stages i.e (100%, 80% xix and 60%, (CWR) were provided with the drip laterals buried at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 cm with three replications for each treatment. Dripper discharge of 4 l/s with operating pressure of 1 bar was maintained for each irrigation. A significant effect of lateral depth was observed with highest yield of 13.99 t/ha was calculated at 12 cm depth, while low yield of 9.02 t/ha was observed with lateral depth of 24 cm. It can be concluded that low depth crops like onion can be grown with maximum irrigation water use efficiency of 0.57 t ha-1 cm-1 using sub surface drip irrigation (SSD1) buried at shallow depth of 12 cm. Similarly, greater irrigation water use efficiency was estimated for 60% irrigation level with 0.46 t ha-1 cm-1 . A parallel experiment was also conducted on peas two consecutive years 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 at Water Management Research Centre, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three treatments (T1, T2, T0) refers to three irrigation methods i.e. 0 cm (surface drip), 12 cm (sub surface drip) and ridgefurrow irrigation with Three irrigation stages i.e (100%, 80% and 60%, (CWR) was studied. A substantial effect of lateral depth was observed with yield of 2.72 t/ha was calculated at 12 cm depth, while low yield 1.55 (t/ha) was observed under ridge-furrow technique. Similarly, higher (IWUE) was estimated under 60% irrigation level with 0.16 t ha-1 cm-1 . It is suggested that drip laterals placed at shallow depths should be adopted to achieve high crop yield especially for vegetables. Moreover, the microwave signal can be used to calculate rainfall at high spatio-temp resolution that can potentially be used in agricultural water management, flood monitoring and other related studies.
Gov't Doc #: 20213
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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