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Title: Analysis of Risky Behaviors Casuing Road Accidents on Motorways in Pakistan A case Study of M-1
Authors: Khan, Amin
Keywords: Physical Sciences
Urban & Regional Planning
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
Abstract: The study has been carried out on M-1, which is 155 km (96 miles) long stretch of Motorways of Pakistan, with the aim to explore the determinants of risky driving behaviours and to correlate it with Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs). This segment of Motorway plays very critical role in the global affairs for being part of the giant connectivity plan of People Republic of China with the rest of Afro-Asia/Eurasia commonly known as One Belt, One Road plan (OBOR). Currently this patch of Motorway is a vital link of Pakistan-Afghanistan and Central Asia and also an integral part of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Road safety scenario of the area reflect a dismal picture as despite enhanced enforcement and improved road infrastructure which is one of the peculiar characteristics of motorways there is increase in RTAs. In such like situation where level of enforcement against traffic offences and road infrastructure are of optimum level then it becomes imperative to find out other factors especially, the prominent risky behaviours on the part of drivers causing RTAs and to explore the determinants of such behaviours. In order to investigate, risky behaviours and its potential determinants, data collection has been carried out through a survey which comprised of four rounds. The first round was the collection of secondary data; these include police reports from the previous RTAs. The second round was the Key Informants Interviews (KIIs) and based on its findings a questionnaire for the 3rd round pertaining to primary data collection has been devised. The purpose of the 3rd round was to ascertain the frequency and intensity of risky behaviours and its determinants through questionnaire survey and on-spot face to face interaction with the risky drivers. The 4th round was dedicated again to Key Informants Interviews (KIISs) to get the opinion on the findings of the primary data vi analysis. The Key Informants were comprised of Motorway Police officers and other experts from National Transport Research Center (NTRC) and National Highways Authority (NHA). In the analysis of accident data, various patterns have been extracted and the main causes of such accidents were identified. During the study the frequently occurring risky behaviours and its determinants were explored. Consequent upon strong evidences collected during the study, recommendations for better planning and management of motorways traffic have been made. In the study area during the past five years (2012 to 2016), 344 traffic crashes occurred which caused 122 deaths and 686 serious injuries. It is found that 49.5 percent of the RTAs happened in rollover pattern, 35 percent in Nose-to-Tail pattern while other patterns occurred in 15 percent of the entire RTAs. According to the available literature, over-speeding and lane violations are termed as driver’s risky behaviours. The main composites of driver’s risky behavior include over-speeding and lane-violations. Similar to the literature, over speeding and lane violations are also labeled as risky behaviours in this study as well. In the causation of such accidents Lane violations has contributed 30 percent while over-speeding caused 13.6 percent RTAs. According to the analysis during the period 2012 to 2016 the driver’s risky behaviours resulted in almost 60% of RTAs. As mentioned before, the aim of this study is to explore the underlying causes of risky behaviours. In this study, the following 16 attributes have been analyzed as potential determinants in the context of Pakistan motorways. These potential determinants include: (1) purpose of journey, (Residential, health, job, commercial, recreational, court, job, transit, political and others), (2) travel direction (North-South),(3) Gender vii (4) Travel direction (homebound or work bound), (5) kilometers covered before the violation is committed, (6) Marital Status (7) Number of dependents (8) Education Status (9) Drivers’ experience (10) Occupation Status (11) Vehicles type (12) License Types (13) Car Ownership Status (14) person accompanied, (15) Previous record (16) frequency of violation. It is found that majority of the drivers with risk taking behaviours are hailing from rural areas settled in the north of the country and proceeding nearby big cities for residential as well as health related activities. The drivers used to switch to risky behavior in the first 100 kilometers of their travel. Unmarried drivers have been found to be more risky than the married. Similarly, the drivers travelling alone and those accompanied by family and kids have been recorded as the riskiest drivers. The self-employed category of drivers has a lion share in the population of drivers with risk taking behaviours. Most of the drivers with low level of education and low economy are amongst the drivers exhibiting risky behaviours. Regarding the type of vehicles, it has been found that most of the vehicles driven by such risky drivers were of Light Transport Vehicles (LTV). The mentioned attributes of the drivers indicate their socio-economic background hence; its role in drivers’ behaviour holds significance and cannot be overlooked. Contrary to the literature, the main impact which this study establishes is the exploration of determinants of such risky behaviours in the context of motorways in Pakistan. The present study adds another “E” the 4th E” which stands for “Economy” to the existing 3E’s approach i.e. Engineering, Education and Enforcement. As compared to the role of road engineering, traffic Education and law enforcement the role of economy of a region is more important. The better the socio-economic status of a region the better will be the road safety scenario of that region. viii Findings of the study could be helpful in devising better strategies and policies by the decision makers for sustainable road safety. Similarly, as conducted in the present case this study also lays a firm foundation of research for conducting alike research in various other disciplines especially, in transportation planning. This study also recommends the decision makers to devise strategies for intelligent enforcement against over-speeding, to improve public health sector, to enhance capacity building of the personnel of the e executing agencies and to work for rural development to check on rural exodus so, as to ensure road safety in a more appropriate manner.
Gov't Doc #: 20206
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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