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Title: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of Juglans regia L. and Trigonella gharuensis Rech.f.
Authors: Mobashar, Aisha
Keywords: Biological & Medical Sciences
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: The University of Lahore, Lahore.
Abstract: Background: The genus of Juglans and Trigonella have long been used in folk remedy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory disorders. The leaves of Juglans regia and herb of Trigonella gharuensis were collected from Northeast and Southwest areas of Pakistan, respectively. Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and n-hexane extracts of J. regia and T. gharuensis in different in-vivo models of acute and chronic inflammation. Methodology: Arthritis was induced in rodents using Freund’s complete adjuvant induced model of chronic inflammation. Extracts of J. regia leaves and T. gharuensis were administered in the doses of 500 mg/kg b.w., p.o. and 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o., respectively. Treatment was started at 8th day of arthritic induction and sustained for 20 days with extracts and piroxicam as control. At 28th day, all animals were sacrificed. Arthritis was determined using an arthritic scoring index. Blood analysis and biochemical parameters were determined. RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, NF-ĸB, IL-6, IL-1β, COX-1, COX2, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4. Prostaglandin E2 level (PGE2) was evaluated using ELISA. Paw edemas were measured using digital water plethysmometer. For evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities, acute inflammatory paw edema models (carrageenan-, histamine-, serotonin- and dextran-induced paw edema), ear edema model xx (xylene-induced ear edema) and castor oil-induced diarrhea model were used. Qualitative analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were performed for the identification of potential anti-inflammatory phytochemicals. Results: Treatment with J. regia and T. gharuensis extracts inhibited arthritic development and significantly attenuated paw edema. All evaluated histopathological parameters were found significantly reduced after treatment with plant extracts. The RT-PCR analysis showed significant attenuation of pro-inflammatory TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-6, and IL-1β levels and potentiation of IL-4 levels. COX-2 expression level was also found reduced in extracts treated groups. ELISA demonstrated suppression of PGE2 levels in all extracts treated groups. The results of all extracts were comparable to the effects of piroxicam. The treated groups restored levels of Hb and RBC. Moreover, levels of WBCs and platelets were found to be nearly normalized in treated groups. The non-significant difference in the levels of creatinine, urea, ALT and AST were observed. Both plants extracts significantly reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan in first (early) and second (late) acute inflammation phases, indicating the possible inhibition of autacoids as one of the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity. The extracts also significantly prevented histamine- and serotonin-induced paw edema which complemented inhibition of carrageenan-induced inflammation in the first acute phase. Suppression of edema by plant extracts in dextran- and xylene-induced inflammatory models supported inhibition of autacoids. Attenuation of castor oil-induced diarrhea by both extracts supported inhibition of carrageenan-induced inflammation via prostaglandin inhibition in the second acute inflammation phase. Qualitative phytochemical screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated constituents with anti-inflammatory activity, for example, fatty acid esters and flavonoids in both extracts. xxi Conclusion: Extracts of J. regia leaves and T. gharuensis herb ameliorated experimentally induced arthritis which may be ascribed to their immunomodulatory effects. Moreover, attenuation of inflammatory edema in different acute models not only validated antiinflammatory potential but also suggested possible inhibition of autacoids as one of the mechanisms along with immunomodulatory effects of both plants.
Gov't Doc #: 20204
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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