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Title: Pakistani Society and Challenges of Women Empoerment 1988-2000
Authors: Ali, Amjad
Keywords: Pakistan Studies
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan
Abstract: Pakistani Society has a rigid, male dominated social structure and is divided into rural, urban and suburban areas. In Pakistan gender discrimination is visible in all fields of life. The struggle of women for their rights got a new shape of emergence during the feminist movements in the beginning of 20th century. Then the movement changed into struggle of women empowerment and it took new pace. The word ‘empowerment of women’ has different meanings for different people and its importance varies subject to the social, cultural, political, ideological and geographic scenario with respect to geological areas. Women’s rights were exploited and violated in Pakistan and women in the society raised their voices for change in their lives. In Pakistani patriarchal society, women are restricted in mobility, their participation in paid jobs is limited, and their economic independence is suffering. In a joint family system in Pakistan, women are also not enjoying the same status as that of men and they are considered an entity of second priority. So, there is a need of empowerment of women for elevation of their status in the society and in the family. Due to its importance the empowerment of women is one of the most debatable issues in Pakistan. Pakistan claims a democratic Islamic state. In social sector, especially in education and health, there is gender gap and women in Pakistan are not getting proper share according to their population. Education is an important factor in the empowerment of women but in Pakistan large majority of women is not getting proper education due to the ignorance. Constructed social norms in the society are also big causes of the deprivation of women about their basic rights. In the political field, share of women is low that means the women have limited authority in the process of decision making. Legal system of Pakistan and available land laws are also not sufficient to protect the women’s rights and implementations of these laws are not done judicially. Under these laws and structured norms of the society, women are trying to get space in the available and constructed social structure. All these conditions in Pakistan and deprivation of women in their rights were source of inspiration of this study. Objective of the present study was to find out the possibilities and opportunities for the empowerment of women in Pakistani Society. A survey from all over Pakistan including all provinces and Gilgit Baltistan was conducted. 600 people were included as sample of the study. Objective of the survey was to find the social, political and economical empowerment of women during the era 1988-2000. The instruments of the study comprised a Likert type questionnaire, and documentary analyses of the data of national elections held in 1988, 1990, 1993, and 1997. From data analysis, it was found that during this era women were deprived from their basic rights and they did not have proper position in the society. There was no sex difference in the opinion and both male and female members of the society observed that the level of women empowerment was at low point. In the four general elections held in Pakistan during the period under study women also participated on general seats. Analysis of the study revealed that participation of women in political process was low and was not in accordance with their population. Even the reserved seats for women were abolished during the said period. The share of women in education sector was also analyzed and their enrolment, dropout rate and the job of women in this sector was also assessed. The study tells us the women were also far behind their male counterparts in education and health sectors. The correlation between the social, political and economic factors and its impact on the society was studied. The picture of empowerment of women in Pakistan as emerged from the study would be helpful in the formulation of new policies.
Gov't Doc #: 15138
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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