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Title: Characterization of olive germplasm for fruiting dynamics and productivity in chakwal and Khushab districts
Authors: Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar
Keywords: Horticulture
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi.
Abstract: The olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important species and evergreen fruit tree with premium quality oil in the Mediterranean region. Olive oil is characterized with high level of polyphenol, oleuropein, antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids that reduces, coronary artery, cardiovascular disease and cancer with antimicrobial and antiviral effect. The main olive oil production comes from Spain (more than 1.3 million tons per year) and all European countries contribute about 78% of olive oil in the world. Pakistan is importing the edible oil and ranked fourth from edible oil importing country by importing 75% of edible oil. The import bill of Pakistan is increasing every year at alarming rate and last year the bill was Rs. 284.546 billion. The demand is increasing due to increase in population, per capita consumption and less oil seed crop production. Olive fruit yield, oil production and quality is dependent on genotype but specific environmental conditions and transfer of genotype from one area to another area contributes a large towards successful commercial activity. Morphological, phenological and fruit trait study has vital role in screening of suitable cultivars at specific location. In Pakistan, very less number of studies has been made on different aspects for investigation of exotic olive germplasm with diverse origin. Hence, major aim of the study was to gather the information on the behavior of genotype and to find out the most suitable olive cultivars for Pothwar agro-climatic condition of Pakistan regarding fruit productivity, oil quality and quantity. Moreover, it was aimed to set out the standardized cultural practices like pruning techniques, irrigation and application of nutrition with the recommended doses of each major element under Pothwar agro-climatic conditions of Pakistan under four experiments. On the basis of 1st and 2nd experiment on vegetative, reproductive, fruit characteristic and yield associated parameters, it was concluded that majority of the variables indicated significant variability between the cultivars and selected locations and positive significant correlation were obtained between the variables. Cultivars Ottobratica and Arbequina could be used for pollination purpose against maximum cultivars due to the longest flowering duration. Maximum fruit set percentage was recorded in cultivar Gemlik, Nabali, Hamdi, Frantoio, Coratina , Arbequina, while poor fruit set was observed in cultivar Koroneiki, Ottobratica and Leccino at all locations. Maximum yield per plant was obtained from the cultivar Coratina (22kg) while minimum was recorded from the cultivar Leccino (2.5kg) with mean of 10.54kg for all the varieties. On the basis of correlation matrix, it was concluded that bold size cultivars like Coratina, Gemlik, Jerboui and Nabali could be recommended for projection of olive industry in Pakistan under the climatic condition of Chakwal as fruit set percentage has positive correlation with fruit weight. The grouping of above mentioned cultivars in bi-plot on the basis of oil percentage, fruit set percentage and yield per tree also confirmed the recommendation of cultivars. The identification of self-incompatibility in olive varieties has key importance to estimate pollination in a commercial orchard, as many olive varieties are partially self-incompatible which required compatible pollinizers to ensure maximum fruit set. In the process of self and cross pollination, the initial and final fruit set percentage was significantly affected by varieties and treatments. Nonsignificant variation was found with respect to year of production. The pollination efficiency of olive cultivars was estimated on the basis of initial and final fruit set in each crosses along with number of shotberries. The results revealed that the initial and final fruit set percentage in cultivar Coratina crossed with Frantoio was significantly higher than the crosses made with Ottobratica and Leccino. However, no significant change in number of shotberries in Coratina was observed when crossed with either of the studied cultivars. On other hand, in reciprocal cross (Frantoio × Coratina) when Coratina was used as pollen parent the percentage of initial fruits set and number of shotberries decreased significantly as compared to direct cross (Coratina × Frantoio) but final fruit set was found as good as found earlier. The percentage of initial fruit set in Frantoio crossed with Ottobratica or Leccino was statistically non-significant and was comparatively higher than Coratina. However, final fruit set in all the crosses when Frantoio was used as female parent was the statistically different. For Ottobratica, the best pollinizer was found to be Frantoio as this cross produced the highest percentage of fruit set as compared to Coratina, Leccino and in open-pollination treatment. The percentage of fruit set in the cross Ottobratica × Leccino revealed that Leccino was not efficient enough to pollinize Ottobratica. Based on the initial fruit set Coratina, Frantoio, and Leccino possessed the same efficiency to fertilize Ottobratica, however Coratina and Frantoio were found with slightly value for final fruit set. The reciprocal cross of Leccino with Ottobratica (Leccino ×Ottobratica) had a high percentage of final fruit set as compared to direct cross (Ottobratica ×Leccino). Moreover, the percentage of fruit set in the crosses viz. Leccino × Coratina, Leccino × Frantoio, and Leccino × Ottobratica were statistically the same as compared to open-pollination. It is noteworthy that the percentage of fruit set in all the crosses except Ottobratica × Leccino was more than 2% or nearly 2% percent which is considered as good for economic yield. Pruning intensities depicted significant results regarding fruit set percentage, fruit weigh, fruit yield, oil contents, oil quality and physiological activities. As for as the treatment effect (pruning intensities) on fruit set was concerned, maximum fruit set (2.58%) was recorded under moderate pruning (30%) followed under 15 % with the value of 2.0 %. T4 (45 %) pruning was ranked at 3rd position (1.91 %) while minimum fruit set was recorded in no pruning treatment (1.35 %). Maximum yield per plant (12.71 kg) was achieved from the plants which were pruned under 30 % pruning intensity followed by 15 % pruning treatment (9.71 kg). The 45% pruning intensity was ranked at 3rd position (6.37 kg) while control treatment was found at the bottom (4.27 kg). Maximum oil content was achieved (19.07 %) under the treatment of 45 % closely followed by moderate pruning of 30 % with the value of 18.51 %. Minimum oil content was found under the control treatment (no pruning). All the varieties showed maximum oil contents under T4 in 1st year except variety Ottobratica which showed maximum oil content in 2nd year (18.10 %) under the same pruning intensity (45 %). Maximum net photosynthetic activity (23.02 umol/m2/s) was recorded in the plants under 30 % pruning intensity followed by 15 % (21.34 umol/m2/s) and 45 % (20.78 umol/m2/s) pruning intensities. Minimum value was recorded in un-pruned plants (19.03 umol/m2/s). As for as the treatments were concerned maximum transpiration rate was recorded in the plants under 30 % pruning intensity (6.95 mmol/m2/s) followed by plants under 45 % pruning intensity (6.65 mmol/m2/s). The plants under 15 % pruning intensity were ranked at 3rd position with the value of 6.27 mmol/m2/s. Overall, the plants which were remained un-pruned, found at the bottom level (5.51 mmol/m2/s). The pruning effect was also found significant for the variables of oil quality and fattay acid profiling. Maximum acid value observed under control pruning (0.72 %) followed by 15 % pruning intensity (0.71 %) with non-significant interaction. Maximum peroxide value was recorded under control pruning treatment (15.42 milli eq/kg) closely followed under 15 % (14.71 milli eq/kg) and 30 % (14.21 milli eq/kg) with non-significant variation among all mentioned three treatments. Plants under 30% pruning intensity was found at top level with the value of 15.65 % while plants under 15 % pruning intensity were found with minimum palmitic acid (13.63 %). For stearic acid there were two groups. Group-1 contained control and 15 % pruning with maximum values of stearic acid while group-2 contained 30 % and 45 % pruning intensities with lower values. However, in this category plants under no pruning showed maximum values (3.81 %) and plants under 45 % pruning intensity showed minimum values (2.91 %). In this case the result depicted that with the increase of pruning intensity, there was gradual decrease in oleic acid content. Higher oleic acid was found in 2nd year (70.25 %) as compared to 1st year (66.28 %). All other parameters were depicted more or less same pattern against pruning intensities. In over all scenarios, it could be summarized that Pakistan is characterized with diverse agro-climatic condition. Olive can be grown on barren and marginal land of Pothwar but unfortunately there was lack of in depth scientific study on exotic olive cultivars regarding it‘s morphological, phenological and fruit traits. According to the best of our knowledge this is the first report for the selection of adaptable olive cultivars performed with morphological descriptor on olive germplasm. Our results suggested that five olive cultivars i.e Coratina, Frantoio, Moraiolo, Gemlik, Nabali and Hamdi were suitable for oil and fruit yield for Pothwar region on the basis of fruit set percentage, fruit yield and oil productivity. The pollination is an issue due to high temperature and dry winds at flowering time so, it is concluded that practice of multivarietal blocks may be adapted for better productivity. This study on morphological diversity among olive cultivars will helpful in establishing of olive industry in Pakistan as in one hand it will serve as a reliable tool for conservation and preservation strategies of olive germplasm and on another hand it will be helpful in improving the fruit yield, oil quantity, quality and market opportunities. However, for perfect and most reliable knowledge qualitative traits and molecular marker could be used in future studies. It is also recommended cultivar specific study for phenological traits in whole districts of Pothwar including numerous cultivars for better results orientation.
Gov't Doc #: 20020
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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