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|Title:||Phytosociological and Ethnobotanical Profile of Subtropical Vegetation of Darazinda, Frontier Region, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan|
|Publisher:||University of Peshawar, Peshawar.|
|Abstract:||Phytosociological and Ethnobotanical Profile of Subtropical Vegetation of Darazinda, Frontier Region, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan This study was conducted i n o r d e r to assess the ecological resources of Darazinda F. R. Dera Ismail Khan during 2013- 2014 in various seasons. The floristic diversity showed presence of 213 species belonging to 68 families in which 46 species were monocotyledons and 163 species were Dicotyledons. Based on number of species, Poaceae (37Spp), Asteraceae (19Spp), Solanaceae (12 Spp), Brassicaceae (10Spp) and Papilionaceae (9 Spp) were the leading families. Life spectrum showed that therophytes were dominant followed by hemicryptophytes. Leaf size spectrum showed nanophylls and Leptophylls were dominant. Cuscuta reflexa and Cistinche tubelosa were the two parasitic plants in the area. Phenological study showed that March was the highest flowering season as 24% of the plants blossomed. High fruiting was recorded in the month of April and June. Dominancy of vegetative phase was dominant in March followed by December and February. July and November were the two dormant seasons observed in the investigated area. The first dormant period extended from July to December with 62 Spp. (29.1%) while second dormant period was observed in October with 55 species (28.8%) in which the temperature slowly decreased facilitating leaf fall. Vegetation structure of the area showed 20 plant communities in five habitats during different seasons. Qualitative analysis showed that 116 species were present throughout the year, in which 7 were trees, 17 shrubs and 92 were herbs. During autumn season 71 species were present, while, 73 species were present during winter, 87 species during spring and 68 species in summer. Similarity index between autumn and winter was 62.3%, spring-autumn 54.5%, spring-winter 79.1%, summer-autumn 53.8%, summer-winter 72.8%, summer-spring was 60.3%. Different communities like Achyranthus biclentata-Tamarix aphylla–Tamarix dioica, Salvadora oleoidesPeriploca aphylla-Withania coagulans, Calotropis procera-Rhazya stricta-Capparis spinosa etc were recorded. Cluster analysis showed 4 associations among 20 communities. Edaphology Of five sights (Bargholi, Pasta, Anghar ghara, Sin ghar and Sur ghar) showed the soil was mostly clay loam, with occasional gravel sandy soil having pH 7.3, EC between 0.37-0.89. Palatability study indicated that 52 plants (24.4%) were non-palatable, 105 (49.2%) palatable, 23 (10.7%) highly palatable, 6 (2.8%) moderate palatable, 14 (6.5%) low palatable while 13 (6%) were rarely palatable. Live stock preference showed that cow preferred 47 (22%), goat 96 (45%), sheep 92 (43.2%) and camel 34 (16%). For palatability condition of plants showed that fresh plants were 100 (47%), dry form 24 (11.2%) and both fresh and dry form were 36 (17%) while the plants parts used by the grazing animals showed that whole plant were 89 spp. (42%), leaf of 64 (30%) and inflorescence of 3spp. (1.4%) were used by grazing animals. Eight palatable species were analyzed for macro and micro minerals in three phenological stages i-e Pre-reproductive, reproductive and post reproductive stages which showed that Ca, Al, P, N, S, Na, K, Mg were macro and Fe, Si, Cu and Cl were micro minerals. Nutritional analysis showed that moisture, ash contents, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and carbohydrate contents were non-significant at three phenological stages of herbs and woody species. Ethnobotanically 198 plant species were used for different purposes, like agriculture applications (2%), fodder (65%), fuel (15%), making furniture (4%), fruit yielding (6%), medicinal(55%), timber (5%), vegetables (13%) and fencing plants (4%). Conservation assessment revealed that 49 plant species (31.4%) were vulnerable, 49 species (31.4%) endangered, 33 (21.1%) species were rare and 25 species (16%) were infrequent due to excessive collection, over grazing and other human influences.|
|Gov't Doc #:||16432|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.|
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