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Title: Phytochemical potential of common Fig (Ficus carica) against life style disorders
Authors: Ajmal, Muhammad
Keywords: Food Science & Technology
Food Technology
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Government College University, Faisalabad
Abstract: The current research study was designed to characterize leaf, peel and pulp of locally grown black variety of common fig (Ficus carica) followed by development of functional product and exploring its hypocholesterolemic & hypoglycemic potential through animal modelling. For the purpose, raw material (Ficus carica fruit & leaves) was procured from Abbotabad (Khyber Pakhtun Kha) and extracted with aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic solvents. Compositional analysis elucidated that fig components are good source of fiber, protein and minerals. Regarding extraction efficiency, aqueous solvent exhibited the highest recovery (8.17%) followed by methanolic (7.65%) and ethanolic (7.30%) solvents, respectively. Total phenolics, anthocyanins and flavonoids were found in descending order in leaf, peel and pulp, correspondingly. Amount of cyanidine-3-rutinoside was the highest in aqueous extract of fruit peel. Functional cakes were developed from three distinct levels (75, 150 and 225ppm) of leaf, peel and pulp extracts along with control for selection of best treatment and further using in bioevaluation trials. The developed cakes were evaluated in sensory analysis. Likewise, crust color, crumb color, taste & overall quality of cakes were scored best for T1 (150 ppm leaf extract) in comparison to control, while flavor, texture and cell uniformity were not altered by extracts. Afterwards, efficacy study in rats was conducted through two consecutive trials I & II for the validity of results. Rats were segregated into three main groups for normal, hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic studies based on diets. Each study comprised of four groups of rats ten in each. 150ppm leaf, peel and pulp extracts were supplemented in diets in addition to control after confirmation of raised glucose and cholesterol level in different rat groups. The consumption of different fig treatments imparted non-substantial effect on feed and drink intake during entire study. Cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides were significantly reduced by different fig extracts however, pronounced decrease as (10.96 & 11.12), (13.56 & 12.25) and (9.64 & 9.01) % was examined for leaf extract during trial I & II, respectively. The significant increase in HDL was also recorded in rats feeding leaf extract based diet from 59±3.04 to 60.78±3.51 and 57±3.22 to 58.70±3.35 mg/dL, respectively. Fig leaf extract was most effective than rest of the treatments and reduced glucose from 98±4.25 to 90.90±4.38 and 100±4.13 to 93.46±4.29 mg/dL in respective trials. Moreover, insulin level was also improved as 7.12, 5.23 & 3.56% by feeding leaf, peel and pulp extract in trial I and similar trend was observed in trial II. Furthermore, urea & creatinine level of fig extract fed rats was recorded as low as compared to control group, in which pulp affected least these parameters. AST, ALT & ALP concentrations were deceased in normal, hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic studies in descending fashion leaf>peel>pulp in both trials. Conclusively, fig leaf should be included in diet therapy in addition to fig fruit due to health promoting potential that can combat lifestyle related disorders.
Gov't Doc #: 16671
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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