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Title: "Comparative Phenotypic Characterization, Performance and Antibody Response in Naked Neck Chicken"
Authors: Shafiq, Muhammad
Keywords: Poultry Production
Poultry Science
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore.
Abstract: The study was executed to compare, characterize and evaluate the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat composition, phenotypic characterization, morphometric measurements, egg production, egg characteristics and hatching traits in four different phenotypes (black, white black, light brown and dark brown) of Naked-Neck chicken located in Pakistan. This study comprised of two major experiments. In first experiment, a total of 320 sexed day old chicks (160♂, 160♀) comprising 80 from each phenotype, were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups, in a 2 (Sexes) × 4 (Phenotypes) factorial arrangement under completely randomized design. Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 8 birds in each. Live weight (g), time of gains(g), total gain(g), feed intake(g), feed conversion ratio and livability% were evaluated at the age of 8 weeks. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA technique under completely randomized design (CRD). The results showed significantly higher live weight, total gain and better FCR in light and dark brown phenotypes, whereas time of gains was found to be higher in dark brown. Feed intake and livability remained similar in all phenotypes. Keel length and shank circumference measurements were higher in dark brown whereas wing spread was greater in light brown phenotype. Drumstick circumference and body length were same in all phenotypes. Phenotypic characterization was done at the age of 20th week and based on head appearance, comb type, wattle size, plumage pattern, shank color, spurs prevalence and number of toes and were analyzed in terms of frequency and percentages. The results showed that males and females of all phenotypes had plain head and single comb. Wattle size was medium in females while highly developed in males. Over all plain feather pattern was most frequent on breast, wing bow, wing bar, wing bay, saddle and tail followed by stippled, penciled and laced. Males had most frequent yellow shanks followed by grey, off-white and green; however, females had maximum grey shank color followed by yellow, green and off white. White black, light and dark brown phenotypes expressed maximum yellow shank coloration whereas grey shanks were most frequent in black birds. However, morphometric characterization was based on Neck length (cm), keel length (cm), wing span (cm), shank length (cm), shank circumference (cm), drum stick length (cm), drum stick circumference (cm) and body length. The results showed significantly higher morphometric measurements in males than females. Light and dark brown phenotypes had higher measuring values of quantitative traits than those of black and white black. All males and females of different phenotypes possessed four toes, normal spurs and tuft feathers on the ventral portion of the Neck above crop. Regarding carcass characteristics, live weight (g), dressing%, liver weight%, gizzard weight%, heart weight%, intestinal weight%, intestinal length (cm) and antibody response against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were studied. The results showed significantly higher live weight (g), dressing%, liver weight% and intestinal length (cm) in males whereas gizzard weight% and intestinal weight% was found to be greater in females. Among different phenotypes, light brown plumage color birds indicated significantly higher live weight (g) and dressing% whereas black plumage color birds showed higher intestinal weight%. Antibody response was significantly higher in females as compared to male birds. Among different phenotypes light and dark brown phenotype exhibited significantly higher NDV titer as compared to black and white black phenotype birds. Regarding meat composition and cholesterol contents, results depicted significantly higher dry matter%, crude protein%, ash% and cholesterol content(mg/100g) in males whereas ether extract% and moisture% were found to be higher in females. Among different phenotypes, dry matter% was found to be higher in white black, crude protein% in black, white black and dark brown phenotypes moisture% in light brown and cholesterol content in black plumage color birds, whereas ether extract% and ash% were observed to be greater in black and white black plumage colored birds. In second experiment, a total, 300 females (20 weeks old) from four different phenotypes (black, white black, light brown and dark brown), 75 from each, were randomly selected from the foundation stock maintained at ICGRC then assigned to 4 experimental groups arranged under Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Experimental groups consisted of four phenotypes. Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 15 birds in each. Production performance, egg geometry, quality and hatching traits were evaluated. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA technique under CRD. The results indicated significantly higher feed intake (g) in white black phenotype, heavier body weight(g) in light brown and dark brown phenotypes whereas, egg production, egg mass, FCR/dozen eggs and FCR/kg egg mass was found to be better in light brown phenotype. Egg weight (g) remained higher in black, light brown and dark brown phenotypes. Egg geometry results demonstrated higher egg weight (g), egg breadth (mm), egg volume (mm2) and egg surface area (mm3) in light brown phenotype whereas egg length (cm) was found to be greater in white black phenotype followed by light brown, dark brown and then black phenotype whereas egg quality showed no difference in various phenotypes of Naked-Neck chickens. While studying hatching traits, results showed significantly higher settable eggs%, fertility% and hatchability% in black, dark brown and light brown phenotypes than that of white black whereas better hatch of fertile% and reduced embryonic mortality% was recorded in black and dark brown phenotypes as compared to white black. Better chick quality was observed in dark brown phenotype followed by light brown, black and then white black. In conclusion, phenotypes other than white black showed relatively higher commercial importance because of their better productive and reproductive performance. Key words: Naked Neck, phonotypic characterization, morphometric, carcass traits, antibody response, meat composition, productive performance, egg characteristics, hatching traits
Gov't Doc #: 16851
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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