Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/1287
Title: GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN WORKFORCE THROUGH STICKY FLOOR & GLASS CEILING EFFECTS: A STUDY OF PUBLIC & PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS OF PAKISTAN
Authors: Channar, Zahid Ali
Keywords: Social sciences
Economics
International economics
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Isra University, Hyderabad
Abstract: Human Resource Management (HRM) is a very essential tool of the organizations. Now-a-days its importance has increased because of the heterogeneous work force. Globalization has resulted in the “Managing Diversity”, the prime aim of which is to provide equitable work environment for heterogeneous work force to perform to its potentials. One of the tools of the managing diversity is Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO). EEO prohibits all forms of employment discrimination. Affirmative Action (AA) is a supportive tool of EEO to correct the employment number mistake of the past. If EEO is not operating properly it will result in Sticky Floor and Glass Ceiling effects. This thesis examines Gender Discrimination through Sticky Floor (Horizontal Discrimination) and Glass Ceiling (Vertical Discrimination) effects. Horizontal discrimination is examined through employment, trainings, assignments and behavior at work place; vertical discrimination is examined through promotions and wage gap. Close ended questionnaire was administered from 526 samples-242 males and 282 females- of lower, middle and higher category employees of public and private health and education departments of Hyderabad and Jamshoro districts. The findings showed that females are discriminated more than males in employment, assignments, trainings, and behavior; more in public sector than in private sector. In terms of promotions there is no any significant discrimination against females in any of the sector. Study has also found that females in all age groups are discriminated more than males in public organizations than in private organizations. However females in age group 31-40 years are discriminated more and in age group 41-50 less. Effect of viiimarital status on gender discrimination in workforce is not different for females and males in public organizations than private organizations. The effect of children on gender discrimination in workforce is not different for females and males in public organizations than private organizations. The effect of domicile on gender discrimination in workforce is not different for females and males in public organizations than private organizations. Females are discriminated more than males in majority of the post groups (designation they hold) in both organizations. ‘paramedical’ females in public health department and ‘nurse’ in private health department and ‘HST’ in public and private education department face more discrimination; whereas ‘professors’ in public and private health department and ‘university professors’ in public and private education department face less discrimination. The effect of social class on gender discrimination in workforce is not different for females and males in public organizations than private organizations. The effect of district on gender discrimination in workforce is different for females and males in public organizations than private organizations. The effect of organization on gender discrimination in workforce is not different for females and males in public organizations than private organizations. Females are discriminated more than males in majority of the current salary groups in both organizations. In both sectors, females of salary group ‘5,100 to 8,000’ face more discrimination and ‘more than 50,000’ face less discrimination. The influence of education on gender discrimination is not different for males and females in private organizations than in public organizations. However, females of education group ‘intermediate’ face more discrimination and ‘PhD’ face less discrimination in public sector and females of education group ix‘matriculation’ face more discrimination and ‘MPhil’ face less discrimination in private sector. Females are paid less than males and that wage gap is more in private sector than public sector, though they have equal educational attainment level in both sectors. The findings have also shown that gender discrimination is inversely proportional with job satisfaction and motivation and commitment and enthusiasm, and directly proportional with the stress level.
URI:  http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789//1287
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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