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Authors: Khan, Ghulam Mustafa
Keywords: Social Sciences
Primary education
Secondry education
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: THE IMPACT OF LEISURE-TIME TELEVISION ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF 5 TH CLASS STUDENTS Contents of the Dissertation Over the past decades, the term global culture and cultural globalization have come to the forefront of international communication. Media of Mass Communication has reduced the vast world to the point where Marshall Mc Luhan’s notion of a global village has become a virtual reality. Media research over the years has focused on three major themes:- (1) The Effects of Violence in Mass Media on American Culture. (2) The Effects of erotica in the media on Culture and (3) The Effects of Mass media on Children. The concern over media began with the invention of television in 1920. The first major media effects studies “The Payne Fund Studies” was conducted in 1929. Television is one of the most powerful and an integrated global medium of mass communication. Now, television has been a common & constant source of socialization all over the world. The works begin with Chapter 1: “Introduction” that gives an introductory discussion of research, focus and goals of the study. Chapter 2: “The Review of Related Literature” looks at the agenda-setting literature and overview of theoretical perspectives of mass communication, derive of the major hypothesis and research on television viewing and academic achievements. Chapter 3: “The research Methodology” takes a close look at the research procedures particularly in terms of the impact of television viewing on the academic achievement of 5 th class student in Pakistan. Chapter 4: “Analysis of Data” presents composition of sample, testing of the major hypothesis and item-wise analysis of data. Chapter 5: “Summary, Findings, Conclusion & Recommendations” reports the description of the study, findings of testing of major hypothesis, findings of the item-wise analysis of data: (students, teacher and parents) and the findings of the comparison between television viewing & academic achievements and also summary of the findings of Teachers & Parents on the topic. Finally, conclusion and recommendations present a key findings of the study and future research was suggested. Scope & Purpose The significance and relationship of Mass Media, In the field of education are well recognized. The primary education is considered universally, the most important level of education. It contributes towards literacy, Socio-Economic development of a country and individual itself. However, the academician and researchers have always seen television as the most dominant Mass Media and a key ingredient in national, regional and global development. They have focused in their studies the influence of Mass media specially television on children of primary education and revealed that the impact of television has been instant and profound. In fact, there is still need of more training in the strategic management of television viewing so that children can play their role more effectively to the nation.v Problem under investigation In Pakistan, children grow up spending much of their free time watching television. Their childhood and life are shaped by the television. Today this concern increasing as our society sees a growing number of latchkey children who spend their After-School hours in front of Television set. The study explored the major influence of television and relationship between children relative amount, nature, and extent of television viewing and their academic achievement in the schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Specifically, there were two main purposes of the study. (1) a). To conduct an intensive survey and to determine “The Impact Of Leisure-Time Television On The Academic Achievements Of 5 th Class Students”. b). To analyze the views of teachers and parents on impact of television viewing on children’s academic performance. (2) To make recommendations for the improvement in the light of findings. Important features of the studies Methodology An exhaustive review of the related literature on the topic of the study was carried and the theoretical frame work of the study was planned. The research strategy adopted for the study was Causal Comparative Research also known as ex Post-Facto Research. The population of the study consisted of all the school going age children between 9 to 13 years, who had passed class V and currently studying in class VI in schools of five districts of Karachi, Pakistan, who were both television viewers and non viewers. Stratified random sampling designs were used to draw various samples. The total size of the sample was kept at 260. Two tailored-made research instruments were developed: 1) a questionnaire for students consisting of 20 items and 2) a questionnaire for teachers and parents of 8 items and in addition two data forms for socio-economic status of students were used to obtain information from parents. Necessary measures including a pilot study was administered personally by the investigator to the respondents to ensure the validity and reliability of the research instruments. The data was presented in tables and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The data yielded by the questionnaires were subjected to 1) test of significance at 0.05 level. 2) chi square test (X 2 ) to analyzed & interpret frequency data and 3) The comparative analysis of students television viewing and their academic achievements was shown through tables, graphs and trend lines in study. Basic Findings 1. The findings of the research study revealed that out of the seven hypotheses significance difference at 0.05 level, five were rejected and the other two were upheld. Thus: i. The academic achievement of students who come from urban areas, who view television were more positive then students of the rural areas. ii. The academic achievement of students who study in the private school, who view television were more favourable then students of the Government schools. iii. The academic achievement of students who study in the large school, who view television were more positive then students of the small school. iv. The academic achievement of the students who study in the English medium, who view television were more favourable then students of the urdu medium v. The academic achievement of the students who come from upper socio-economic level, who view television were more positive then students of the lower socio-economic level school. No significant difference was found between vi. Television viewers & non viewers vii. Male (boy) & female (girl), But there were notable relationship may lead to greater estimates. 2. The findings of the item wise analysis of questionnaire of students showed wide variability of perceptions among the respondents were more positive and more favourable. 3. The findings of the Comparative analysis between students television viewing and their academic achievement were significant positive. 4. The results of the teachers and parents item wise analysis of the questionnaire revealed that both have a significant positive relationship. This evidence supported that television has enormous potential for teaching positive academic and social skills. Conclusion The major conclusion of the study are: i. The concept of television watching habits is multidimensional and mediating variable. ii. The indicators of the variable are well researched and transparent. And iii. The significance of children’s Television viewing and their academic achievement of school is well proved. The overall findings of the research study lead to the conclusion that i. The impact of leisure-time television on the academic achievements of 5 th class students is positive significantly. and ii. On various extent, nature and type of television viewing, students academic performance range from more positive through moderate positive and mixed opinion respectively. The dissertation concludes by drawing out the theoretical, methodological and policy implication of my analysis. Implications The implications of this research study are to encourage the prosocial educational uses of television as a powerful teaching tool and enhance the understanding of television’s potential positive role in children’s attitude about television viewing and academic achievement in school. This descriptive, analytical, narrative provides new research broadens the ongoing discourse of TV. This suggests an agenda for subsequent research of such phenomena. Recommendations Based on the findings, various recommendations were made for effective capacity building of stakeholders, teachers, parents, students, producers, policy makers and government. Some further studies on television viewing of children are recommended. All statistical data, questionnaire, data forms, tables, descriptive finding and information of television, students annual results, etc are presented in the appendices.
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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