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dc.contributor.authorSadia, Haleema-
dc.description.abstractThe wild edible fruit (WEFs) occupy key position among economically important plants throughout the world. The use of WEFs seems more common and widespread in food insecure countries including underdeveloped and developing countries. Many species of WEFs plays important in curing various disorders due to diversity of bioactive compounds including antioxidants. Pakistan has rich diversity of WEFs commonly grows in tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and alpine forests, plains and deserts of the country. The present study is aimed to analyze the nutritional and antioxidant potential commonly used WEFs with special emphasis on mineral diversity, proximate composition, energy content, bioactive compounds (Ascorbic acids and carotenoids) and free radical scavenging activity using various assays. During field surveys, Important WEFs were collected from various regions of Pakistan and identified using flora of Pakistan. The fully ripened fruits were processed and preserved using good laboratory practices. In analytical methods, minerals including P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr and Cu) were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Proximate composition including Moisture Content (MC), Dry Matter (DM), Ash Content (AC), Crude Lipids (CL), Total Dietary Fibre (TDF), Crude Proteins (CP), Total Available Carbohydrates (TAC) and Gross Calorific Value (GCV) were determined using standard methods. Free radical scavenging activity was determined using different assays including Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Scavenging (DPPH) and Phosphomolybdenium Reduction (PMR). For confirmation of potential compounds, Ascorbic acids and carotenoids were determined using HPLC techniques. a total of 23 WEFs belonging to 12 families commonly used in Pakistan were selected. Most of the species belong Rosaceae and Moraceae (4pecies) followed by Capprifoliaceae and Solanaceae (represented 4 species). The majority of species showed rich content of Potassium (K) except Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia monacantha having Calcium whereas Solena amplexicaulis, Rosa moschata Rosa webbiana and Rubus anatolicus were rich in Phosphorus (P). Among heavy metals, Cd was detected in Sambucus wightiana, Pistacia khinjuk, Lonicera quinquelocularis, Ribes orientale. In proximate composition, majority of WEFs showed highest percentage of moisture content except Sambucus wightiana having dry matter ((85.17 ± 4.902%). The highest free energy was reported in Pistacia khinjuk (580.82±13.03 DW) followed by Rosa moschata (418.02±20.7 DW). The highest vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) was determined in Rubus anatolicus (740.72±50.32 mg/100g) followed by Rosa webbiana (669.17±56.08 mg). In free radical scavenging activities of WEFs, aqueous extracts showed maximum antioxidant activities. The commonly isolated carotenoids were alltrans-β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene-5, 6-epoxide, all-trans-ɛ-carotene, all-trans-γ- carotene, all-trans-β-carotene and 13-cis-β-carotene. The present study provides baseline data on commonly used WEFs in rural communities of Pakistan. The study concludes that reported species are enriched with nutrients that can fulfil the nutrition requirements among human populations.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherQuaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.en_US
dc.subjectPlant Sciencesen_US
dc.titleNutritional and Antioxidant Analysis of Selected Wild Edible Fruits in Pakistan.en_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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