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Title: Pharmacognostic Standardardization and Bioinspired Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Gold / Silver Nanoparticles of Euphorbia wallichii Hook.
Authors: , Rehman Ullah
Keywords: Botany
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: University of Peshawar, Peshawar.
Abstract: In the current study Euphorbia wallichii was evaluated through pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies. Euphorbia wallichii was standardized pharmacognostically, revealed hypostomatic nature with anisocytic and paracytic stomata. Vein islet vein termination number stomatal index and palisade ratio were determined as leaf surface constants. Powder drug of shoot and rhizome revealed various structures. The phytochemical evaluation showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugars, phenols, proteins, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phytosterols. Moreover, Green approach was employed to synthesize metallic nanoparticles, using phyto-organic molecules as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents. Both the shoot extract (SE) and rhizome extract (RE) were capable for the reduction of Ag+ (in AgNO3 solution) and Au+3 (in HAuCl4 solution) and capping the respective metals, leads to the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs and AuNPs respectively. Both AgNPs and AuNPs were characterized by Uv_Vis spectrophotometer showing maximum absorption in the range of 400 to 500 nm and 500 to 600 nm respectively. SEM revealed spherical morphology and diversity in size distribution of both SE and RE mediated AgNPs and AuNPs. XRD pattern confirm crystalline nature with fcc geometry. FTIR confirmed functional groups associated with the reduction of Ag+ and Au+3 and capping the synthesized nanoparticles. Elemental mapping of both AgNPs and AuNPs was sketched through EDX spectroscopes, which confirm the presence of elemental Au and Ag at different KeV energy levels. Acute toxicity assay validate that SE is more toxic than RE to experimental animals causing mortality at 1500mg/kg bw and 2000mg/kg bw respectively. Analgesic activity authenticates dose and time dependant analgesia, where NPs were more potent than their respective extracts alones. Generally, both SE and RE mediated AgNPs produced significant analgesia at 30 min of drug administration while SE and RE mediated AuNPs were more pronounced at 60 and 90 min of drugs administration. Muscle relaxant potential of SE, RE and their mediated AuNPs and AgNPs were also dose dependant. Nanoparticles were observed to be comparatively more efficient than the extracts alone. Generally, RE and RE mediated AgNPs and AuNPs exhibited more spasmolytic activity than SE and SE mediated AgNPs and AuNPs respectively. Lethal dose for 50% population (LD50) against Aedes egypti larvae for SE and Se mediated AgNPs and AuNPs were 8.23 µg/ml, 6.99 µg/ml and 11.08 µg/ml while for RE and RE mediated AgNPs and AuNPs were 34.03 µg/ml, 8.25 µg/ml and 14.33µg/ml respectively. Cytotoxicity against the shrimp’s larvae was dependent on dose concentration. The lethal dose of SE, SE mediated AgNPs and AuNPs for 50% (LD50) mortality of shrimp’s larvae population was15.53 µg/ml, 7.01 µg/ml and 6.60 µg/ml respectively. RE, RE mediated AgNPs and AuNPs 18 produced mortality of shrimp’s population with LD50 values of 24.17 µg/ml, 23.25 µg/ml and 12.51µg/ml respectively. Extract from both parts and their mediated gold and silver nanoparticles exhibited a high degree of antioxidant under different times (30, 60 and 90 Min) of incubation. The reduction of DPPH in optical density at 517 nm was dependent on both dose concentration and time of incubation. Both SE, RE and their derived AgNPs and AuNPs produced promising bactericidal effect against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, B. pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsella pneumoniae. Different bacterial strains showed variable response to various experimental treatments, where AgNPs of both SE and SE were more pronounced than AuNPs and extracts alone. Antifungal efficacy was tested against Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, A. paraciticus, Fusarium solani and A. niger. Fusarium solani was comparatively more resistant where A. niger was the most susceptible fungus amongst the used strains in the current experiment. Promastigotes of Leishmania tropica respond to SE, SE mediated AgNPs and AuNPs with LD50s as 34.73 µg/ml, 13.86 µg/ml and 21.3 µg/ml respectively, while RE, RE mediated AgNPs and AuNPs were potent against the L. tropica with LD50s as 69.73 µg/ml, 27.30 µg/ml and 41.88 µg/ml respectively. Lemna minor bioassay validate that RE was more phytotoxic than SE and AuNPs were more toxic than AgNPs.
Gov't Doc #: 19252
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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