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dc.contributor.authorAli, Muhammad-
dc.description.abstractRecently use of herbal therapies and diet rich in flavonoids and vitamins has augmented significantly to manage minor to modest illnesses. But further studies are necessary to assess the pharmacological and toxicological effects of plants. Hence current study was intended to assess the pharmacologic and toxic effects of Nelumbo nucifera fruit ethanol extract. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the seed pods of the N. nucifera fruit extract exposed the existence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins and terpenoids in it. The acute toxicity study of the N. nucifera fruit extract revealed its LD50value to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. N. nucifera fruit have exhibited strong anxiolytic, antidepressant and antiepileptic activities and that is perhaps both segments of the N. nucifera fruit (seed and seed pod) are rich in significant phytochemical constituents e.g. flavonoids and alkaloids. Flavonoids, saponins and tannins have also reported inhibitory effects on the arachidonic acid metabolism in various studies, hence it can be stated that the analgesic and anti- inflammatory effects of N. nucifera fruit may be due to the presence of these secondary metabolites in it. Present study has also revealed lipid lowering and antithrombotic effects of N. nucifera fruit. The inhibitory effect on lipid auto-oxidation and free radical scavenging activity of flavonoids, tannins and procyanidin might be a possible mechanism of its lipid lowering activity, whereas inhibitory effects of flavonoids and alkaloids (neferine and liensinine) on thromboxane A2 formation and platelet aggregation may be a reason of its antithrombotic effect. Present study also conducted sub-chronic toxicity studies which showed no substantial hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes in hepatic and renal tissues of most animals of treated groups, however hepatic and renal sections of few animals showed reversible mild to moderate inflammatory changes which were in agreement with biochemical alterations. Hence it can be concluded that N. nucifera fruit has enormous therapeutic potential and is highly safe for short term use but may be used in moderate doses if required for prolonged period; however more investigations are required in this field to confirm these findings.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHigher Education Commission Pakistanen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of Karachi, Karachi.en_US
dc.titlePharmacological & Toxicological Evaluation of Nelumbo Nucifera Fruiten_US
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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