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Title: Probing the Surface Activated carbon; Oxidation of Cycloalkanes in the Protocol of Green Chemistry
Authors: , Razia
Keywords: Chemistry
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: University of Malakand, Malakand
Abstract: Cycloalkanes/cyclohexene, benzyl alcohol oxidation and Heck reaction have been investigated in the protocol of green chemistry using variety of catalysts such as activated carbon (AC), MOF/ZrP, Pd/Carbon dots in a self-designed batch type glass reactor. The activated carbons from peanut shells, corn cobs, spent tea leaves (STL) and olive pits have been prepared by different procedures and characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, TGA/DTA and BET surface area and pore size analyzer. The AC from peanut shells show good catalytic activity for cyclohexane oxidation with oxygen and air, in the absence/presence of a base. While AC from corn cobs and STL are inactive under any reaction conditions. The oxidation of cyclohexane occurred on the quinonic functional groups of AC present on the surface of AC from peanut shells. The catalytic activity of AC was also screened for oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with air at mild reaction conditions. Similarly, AC from olive pits was used for adsorptive removal of toluidine blue from aqueous solution. The removal of toluidine by AC followed Temkin isotherm and first order kinetics where 83% dye was removed from the solution. Carbon dots were synthesized by a green route and Pd nanocrystals (nanocubes and octahedrons) were used for quenching of carbon dots. The green fluorescence of carbon dots vanished with quenching as Pd is a best quencher having 4D8 configuration. The uptake of nanooctahedrons was more favorable in comparison with nanocubes. Pd/C-dots were used for catalyzing Heck reaction between aryl iodide and styrene. Pd nanooctahedrons/C-dots shows 71% yield in 4 hours. Layer by layer HKUST-1 supported on zirconium phosphate has been used as catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexene in solvent free conditions. The conversion and selectivity towards products changed with the number of layers of HKUST-1 on ZrP. 92% conversion was observed with less than 1% by-products. The catalyst was found selective for allylic oxidation with molecular oxygen.
Gov't Doc #: 18732
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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