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Title: Phytosociological Analysis of Koh-e-Bheengra and Alied Areas of Upper Tanawal, District Mansehra, Pakistan
Authors: Farooq, Muhammad
Keywords: Botany
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Hazara University, Mansehra
Abstract: The current work was executed in Upper Tanawal which is situated in the mid of Western fragment of lesser Himalaya. The study area is situated between 34°.34.40´ N to 34°.48.88´ N latitude and 72°.84.27´ E to 73°.10.50´ E longitude. Upper Tanawal is rich in biodiversity. (Farooq et al., 2017). This Area of Himalaya has been unexplored for botanical researches due to its remoteness as well as poor law and order conditions. Upper Tanawal also called feudal Tanawal is a territory found in the mid of western part of Hazara division. On its west lies Bhadanak tract of District Haripur; on its west lies River Indus, on North found Tor Ghar (Black Mountain) and Agror Valley and on its East, it is bounded by areas of Pakhal valley and parts of District Abbottabad. (Watson,1907) In British India, upper Tanawal consisted of two states i.e. Amb and Phulra. Amb being the major state constituted about 85 % of the area while Phulra had 15 % of the total land. At present upper Tanawal consists of ten union councils of tehsils Mansehra and Oghi of district Mansehra. (Watson 1907, Farooq, et al., 2017) During this study the area was extensively visited and appraised during January 2014- December 2016 for phytosociological data collection using quadrate method. Using species-area curve technique size of the quadrate was determined. Size of quadrate was 100 m2, 10 m2 and 1 m2 for trees, shrubs and herbs respectively. Plants were collected, preserved, identified and submitted with herbarium Hazara University Mansehra. Results reflect that Upper Tanawal hosts 308 plant species of tracheophytes belonging to 243 genera placed in 92 tree families. Asteraceae and Leguminosae were found to be the dominant families represented by 26 species each. Rosaceae was represented by 21 species, Poaceae by 19, Lamiaceae by 15, Brassicaceae by 8, Euphorbiaceae, Pteridaceae, and Moraceae with seven species each. On the basis of habit plants of the study area were divided into three classes i.e. Herbs, shrubs and trees. The vegetation was dominated by herbs as 202(66%) species showed herbaceous habit. Trees habit was shown by 59(19 %) species. As far as shrubs are concerned 47(15%) species fell in this catagory. According to the Raunkiaer’s life form classification therophyte was dominant life form class represented by 135 species. Megaphanerophytes were represented by 58 species, Hemicryptophytes were represented by 49 species, nanophanerophytes contributed by 45while geophytes by 21 species. According to leaf size spectrum classification Microphylls were represented by 158 species, followed by mesophylls represented by 116 plant species. Nanophylls, megaphylls and Leptophylls were represented by 22, 10 and 16 species respectively. For detailed ordination of phytosociological data PAST-3 software was used and CCA and DCA plots were drawn. These ordination techniques showed arrangement of data along environmental gradients. DCA and CCA analyses established that altitude, temperature, aspect and soil pH are the strongest environmental drivers responsible for plant species clustering and association formation. In CCA tri-plot species and samples aggregation established interaction among species, samples and environmental variables. For classification of samples to plant communities, PC-ORD software used and by TWINSPAN method 32 plant communities were formed. These plant communities were falling in two vegetational zones of Pakistan i.e. subtropical zone and moist temperate zone.
Gov't Doc #: 18405
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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