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Title: Crisis Management in Education in Pakistan: An Analytical Study
Authors: Javed, Muhammad Latif
Keywords: Education Planning and Management (EPM)
Education, research & related topics
Social sciences
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
Abstract: This research study aims to analyze the practices of crisis management in Educational institutions at secondary level in Pakistan. This was done through the experiences and views of District Education Officers (Secondary), Head of Schools, Secondary School Teachers (SST) and Students of High Schools to examine the real situation and current practices being carried out in secondary schools to handle the crisis. The purpose of the study was not only to examine current practices of crisis management but also to help education administration with specific reference to circumstances under which the process of crisis management at the school level is going on, within the Pakistani Education system. The study also aimed to generalize this process in the global perception by defining an emergent set of strategies of educational crisis management for Pakistani Education System. For starting the actual process of research study the first step was to develop instruments for collection of data. After going through extensive review of related literature, the development of scale (for three groups of respondents) was started. With the guidance and help of supervisor, the first draft of scale was shaped in with the consultation of the experts from the field. The next stage was to test the validity and reliability of the scale with respect to its items. For this purpose a pilot study was conducted in two districts (Bahawal Nagar and Vehari) from the population which were not included in the actual sample of the study. In this pilot study total 182 (2 DEOs, 20 Heads of Schools, 60 Secondary School Teachers and 100 students of Secondary School) were approached, as respondents for distribution of questionnaires. Data analysis of the study revealed that there is a need to redevelop the scale, so three sets of questionnaire were modified according to the results and guidance from the supervisor. Finally a set of three questionnaires was developed to get responses from the target population (sample) of the study. For final collection of data total nine districts of the Punjab were taken as the sample with respect to literacy rate of these districts. In these nine districts three from top (Lahore, Rawalpindi & Jhelum), three from bottom (D.G Khan, Rahim Yar Khan and Rajan Pur) and three from the middle (Bhakkar, Hafizabad and Khushab) were taken as target districts. The nature of the study was based on descriptive type of research methodology. The design of the study was mix method (within the method) by using triangulation technique of data collection; data was collected through three types of questionnaires. As the sample of the study comprise over three segments of the population i.e. A) Administration (DEOs) B) Management (Head &Teachers) and C) Cliental (Students).The current practices of crisis management was aimed to analyze through the set of questionnaires for this task nine DEOs , 450 (126+324) Heads and teachers with 1260 students of secondary school were sampled. The scale of the study mainly focused on Policy and plan, CR team, CM Plan, Communication network, Training and maintenance and Training Practices for DEOs. For Heads and teachers the items were labeled as for policy guidelines, CR Team, CM at School, Awareness/Communication, and Training to handle specific crisis, and CM Styles and CM Models. As for as Students were concerned they were asked about awareness about crisis at school, security issues regarding crisis at school, Corporal punishment in school, academic functioning, sports and games, functional facilities, CR team, Drills practices and training of specific crisis at school level. In this study 22 main and 108 sub factors were analyzed through the process of percentage (%), Weighted Mean (WM), Standard Deviation (SD), and ANOVA to see the variance among all the districts was used and t-test to compare the crisis management practice in two districts of the sample (one from top and other from the low with respect to literacy rate), Lahore and Rajan Pur respectively were taken for cross districts analysis and to see the trends of different groups of respondent line bar graphs were also drawn. The analysis of data (Mean) and findings of the study made sure to achieve study’s objectives and to satisfy a main research question along with the six sub research questions. The main focus of the study was to analyze and examine the current practices of crisis management in secondary schools of Punjab. For this purpose the researcher tried to get clear picture of the practices of crisis management, by aiming at Policy and Plan, the Crisis Response Team, the School management Plan, network of communication, Training and Maintenance, Management Styles, Challenges ahead to Crisis Management in schools, Crisis Management Models and School overall Environment (Academic and supporting practices for crisis) . After getting through the process of analysis of data and findings of the study it was found that at administration and management (DEOs & Head) level the practices of crisis management are in satisfactory mode, whereas at third level (Students) the picture is quiet gloomy. The school administration carries the practices in normal routine. No concept of creating awareness among the students about crisis. No system of crisis response team, training and other measures which are very important for safety and security of the staff and students are not taken in to account. Three categories of districts with respect to literacy were also analyzed through the comparison method. Results achieved from this method of analysis were more a less or same for three categories of districts. The cross district analysis showed that overall all districts are going through the same pattern of crisis management practices, while t-test analysis of two districts, (First & Last) from the list.ANOVA test results showed that Ho (all the Districts have same level of crisis management practices in schools) and H1 (districts have different level of crisis management practices in schools) out of 14 elements for seven Ho rejected and for seven it was accepted. To see the significant difference Post Hoc test through (LSD) was carried out for seven of the elements for both groups i.e. Head/Teachers and Students. Keeping in view all these and other related issues for Crisis Management a set of strategies was proposed, the proposed set of strategies was also presented to the panel of experts (from academics and operational side) to get feedback and expert opinion for its improvement and to see the feasibility in actual environment of school environment, after getting feedback and expert opinion from the panel these strategies were finalized and included in the study. Thisset of strategies for crisis management was developed for secondary school Heads to manage/mitigate crisis situations. The development process of this set of strategies remained on the parameters/criteria which suite to our environment, needs, culture and specially the available (Human and Financial) resources.
Gov't Doc #: 16835
Appears in Collections:PhD Thesis of All Public / Private Sector Universities / DAIs.

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